dpkg-architecture(1) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | COMMANDS | OPTIONS | TERMS | VARIABLES | FILES | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT | NOTES | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

dpkg-architecture(1)           dpkg suite           dpkg-architecture(1)

NAME         top

       dpkg-architecture - set and determine the architecture for
       package building

SYNOPSIS         top

       dpkg-architecture [option...] [command]

DESCRIPTION         top

       dpkg-architecture provides a facility to determine and set the
       build and host architecture for package building.

       The build architecture is always determined by an external call
       to dpkg(1), and cannot be set at the command line.

       You can specify the host architecture by providing one or both of
       the options --host-arch and --host-type. The default is
       determined by an external call to gcc(1), or the same as the
       build architecture if CC or gcc are both not available. One out
       of --host-arch and --host-type is sufficient, the value of the
       other will be set to a usable default. Indeed, it is often better
       to only specify one, because dpkg-architecture will warn you if
       your choice does not match the default.

COMMANDS         top

       -l, --list
              Print the environment variables, one each line, in the
              format VARIABLE=value. This is the default action.

       -e, --equal architecture
              Check for equality of architecture (since dpkg 1.13.13).
              It compares the current or specified Debian host
              architecture against architecture, to check if they are
              equal.  This action will not expand the architecture
              wildcards.  Command finishes with an exit status of 0 if
              matched, 1 if not matched.

       -i, --is architecture-wildcard
              Check for identity of architecture (since dpkg 1.13.13).
              It compares the current or specified Debian host
              architecture against architecture-wildcard after having
              expanded it as an architecture wildcard, to check if they
              match.  Command finishes with an exit status of 0 if
              matched, 1 if not matched.

       -q, --query variable-name
              Print the value of a single variable.

       -s, --print-set
              Print an export command. This can be used to set the
              environment variables using eval.

       -u, --print-unset
              Print a similar command to --print-unset but to unset all
              variables.

       -c, --command command-string
              Execute a command-string in an environment which has all
              variables set to the determined value.

       -L, --list-known
              Print a list of valid architecture names.  Possibly
              restricted by one or more of the matching options
              --match-wildcard, --match-bits or --match-endian (since
              dpkg 1.17.14).

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

       --version
              Show the version and exit.

OPTIONS         top

       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Set the host Debian architecture.

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Set the host GNU system type.

       -A, --target-arch architecture
              Set the target Debian architecture (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       -T, --target-type gnu-system-type
              Set the target GNU system type (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       -W, --match-wildcard architecture-wildcard
              Restrict the architectures listed by --list-known to ones
              matching the specified architecture wildcard (since dpkg
              1.17.14).

       -B, --match-bits architecture-bits
              Restrict the architectures listed by --list-known to ones
              with the specified CPU bits (since dpkg 1.17.14). Either
              32 or 64.

       -E, --match-endian architecture-endianness
              Restrict the architectures listed by --list-known to ones
              with the specified endianness (since dpkg 1.17.14). Either
              little or big.

       -f, --force
              Values set by existing environment variables with the same
              name as used by the scripts are honored (i.e. used by
              dpkg-architecture), except if this force flag is present.
              This allows the user to override a value even when the
              call to dpkg-architecture is buried in some other script
              (for example dpkg-buildpackage(1)).

TERMS         top

       build machine
           The machine the package is built on.

       host machine
           The machine the package is built for.

       target machine
           The machine the compiler is building for.  This is only
           needed when building a cross-toolchain, one that will be
           built on the build architecture, to be run on the host
           architecture, and to build code for the target architecture.

       Debian architecture
           The Debian architecture string, which specifies the binary
           tree in the FTP archive. Examples: i386, sparc, hurd-i386.

       Debian architecture tuple
           A Debian architecture tuple is the fully qualified
           architecture with all its components spelled out.  This
           differs with Debian architectures in that at least the cpu
           component does not embed the abi.  The current tuple has the
           form abi-libc-os-cpu.  Examples: base-gnu-linux-amd64,
           eabihf-musl-linux-arm.

       Debian architecture wildcard
           A Debian architecture wildcard is a special architecture
           string that will match any real architecture being part of
           it.  The general form is a Debian architecture tuple with
           four or less elements, and with at least one of them being
           any.  Missing elements of the tuple are prefixed implicitly
           as any, and thus the following pairs are equivalent:
               any-any-any-any = any
               any-any-os-any = os-any
               any-libc-any-any = libc-any-any
           Examples: linux-any, any-i386, hurd-any, eabi-any-any-arm,
           musl-any-any.

       GNU system type
           An architecture specification string consisting of two parts
           separated by a hyphen: cpu and system.  Examples:
           i586-linux-gnu, sparc-linux-gnu, i686-gnu, x86_64-netbsd.

       multiarch triplet
           The clarified GNU system type, used for filesystem paths.
           This triplet does not change even when the baseline ISA gets
           bumped, so that the resulting paths are stable over time.
           The only current difference with the GNU system type is that
           the CPU part for i386 based systems is always i386.
           Examples: i386-linux-gnu, x86_64-linux-gnu.  Example paths:
           /lib/powerpc64le-linux-gnu/, /usr/lib/i386-kfreebsd-gnu/.

VARIABLES         top

       The following variables are set by dpkg-architecture (see the
       TERMS section for a description of the naming scheme):

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH
           The Debian architecture of the build machine.

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_ABI
           The Debian abi name of the build machine (since dpkg
           1.18.11).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_LIBC
           The Debian libc name of the build machine (since dpkg
           1.18.11).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_OS
           The Debian system name of the build machine (since dpkg
           1.13.2).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_CPU
           The Debian cpu name of the build machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_BITS
           The pointer size of the build machine (in bits; since dpkg
           1.15.4).

       DEB_BUILD_ARCH_ENDIAN
           The endianness of the build machine (little / big; since dpkg
           1.15.4).

       DEB_BUILD_GNU_CPU
           The CPU part of DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_BUILD_GNU_SYSTEM
           The System part of DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE
           The GNU system type of the build machine.

       DEB_BUILD_MULTIARCH
           The clarified GNU system type of the build machine, used for
           filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.16.0).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH
           The Debian architecture of the host machine.

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_ABI
           The Debian abi name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_LIBC
           The Debian libc name of the host machine (since dpkg
           1.18.11).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_OS
           The Debian system name of the host machine (since dpkg
           1.13.2).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_CPU
           The Debian cpu name of the host machine (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_BITS
           The pointer size of the host machine (in bits; since dpkg
           1.15.4).

       DEB_HOST_ARCH_ENDIAN
           The endianness of the host machine (little / big; since dpkg
           1.15.4).

       DEB_HOST_GNU_CPU
           The CPU part of DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_HOST_GNU_SYSTEM
           The System part of DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE.

       DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE
           The GNU system type of the host machine.

       DEB_HOST_MULTIARCH
           The clarified GNU system type of the host machine, used for
           filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.16.0).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH
           The Debian architecture of the target machine (since dpkg
           1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_ABI
           The Debian abi name of the target machine (since dpkg
           1.18.11).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_LIBC
           The Debian libc name of the target machine (since dpkg
           1.18.11).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_OS
           The Debian system name of the target machine (since dpkg
           1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_CPU
           The Debian cpu name of the target machine (since dpkg
           1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_BITS
           The pointer size of the target machine (in bits; since dpkg
           1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_ARCH_ENDIAN
           The endianness of the target machine (little / big; since
           dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_GNU_CPU
           The CPU part of DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_GNU_SYSTEM
           The System part of DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE (since dpkg 1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_GNU_TYPE
           The GNU system type of the target machine (since dpkg
           1.17.14).

       DEB_TARGET_MULTIARCH
           The clarified GNU system type of the target machine, used for
           filesystem paths (since dpkg 1.17.14).

FILES         top

   Architecture tables
       All these files have to be present for dpkg-architecture to work.
       Their location can be overridden at runtime with the environment
       variable DPKG_DATADIR.  These tables contain a format Version
       pseudo-field on their first line to mark their format, so that
       parsers can check if they understand it, such as "# Version=1.0".

       /usr/local/share/dpkg/cputable
              Table of known CPU names and mapping to their GNU name.
              Format version 1.0 (since dpkg 1.13.2).

       /usr/local/share/dpkg/ostable
              Table of known operating system names and mapping to their
              GNU name.  Format version 2.0 (since dpkg 1.18.11).

       /usr/local/share/dpkg/tupletable
              Mapping between Debian architecture tuples and Debian
              architecture names.  Format version 1.0 (since dpkg
              1.18.11).

       /usr/local/share/dpkg/abitable
              Table of Debian architecture ABI attribute overrides.
              Format version 2.0 (since dpkg 1.18.11).

   Packaging support
       /usr/local/share/dpkg/architecture.mk
              Makefile snippet that properly sets and exports all the
              variables that dpkg-architecture outputs (since dpkg
              1.16.1).

EXAMPLES         top

       dpkg-buildpackage accepts the -a option and passes it to
       dpkg-architecture. Other examples:

              CC=i386-gnu-gcc dpkg-architecture -c debian/rules build

              eval `dpkg-architecture -u`

       Check if the current or specified host architecture is equal to
       an architecture:

              dpkg-architecture -elinux-alpha

              dpkg-architecture -amips -elinux-mips

       Check if the current or specified host architecture is a Linux
       system:

              dpkg-architecture -ilinux-any

              dpkg-architecture -ai386 -ilinux-any

   Usage in debian/rules
       The environment variables set by dpkg-architecture are passed to
       debian/rules as make variables (see make documentation). However,
       you should not rely on them, as this breaks manual invocation of
       the script. Instead, you should always initialize them using
       dpkg-architecture with the -q option. Here are some examples,
       which also show how you can improve the cross compilation support
       in your package:

       Retrieving the GNU system type and forwarding it to ./configure:

           DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE)
           DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
           [...]
           ifeq ($(DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE), $(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE))
             confflags += --build=$(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
           else
             confflags += --build=$(DEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE) \
                          --host=$(DEB_HOST_GNU_TYPE)
           endif
           [...]
           ./configure $(confflags)

       Doing something only for a specific architecture:

           DEB_HOST_ARCH ?= $(shell dpkg-architecture -qDEB_HOST_ARCH)

           ifeq ($(DEB_HOST_ARCH),alpha)
             [...]
           endif

       or if you only need to check the CPU or OS type, use the
       DEB_HOST_ARCH_CPU or DEB_HOST_ARCH_OS variables.

       Note that you can also rely on an external Makefile snippet to
       properly set all the variables that dpkg-architecture can
       provide:

           include /usr/local/share/dpkg/architecture.mk

           ifeq ($(DEB_HOST_ARCH),alpha)
             [...]
           endif

       In any case, you should never use dpkg --print-architecture to
       get architecture information during a package build.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       DPKG_DATADIR
              If set, it will be used as the dpkg data directory, where
              the architecture tables are located (since dpkg 1.14.17).
              Defaults to «/usr/local/share/dpkg».

       DPKG_COLORS
              Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).  The currently
              accepted values are: auto (default), always and never.

       DPKG_NLS
              If set, it will be used to decide whether to activate
              Native Language Support, also known as
              internationalization (or i18n) support (since dpkg
              1.19.0).  The accepted values are: 0 and 1 (default).

NOTES         top

       All long command and option names available only since dpkg
       1.17.17.

SEE ALSO         top

       dpkg-buildpackage(1).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the dpkg (Debian Package Manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨https://wiki.debian.org/Teams/Dpkg/⟩.  If you have a bug report
       for this manual page, see
       ⟨http://bugs.debian.org/cgi-bin/pkgreport.cgi?src=dpkg⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://salsa.debian.org/dpkg-team/dpkg.git⟩ on 2021-04-01.  (At
       that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in
       the repository was 2021-01-09.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
       man-pages@man7.org

1.19.6-2-g6e42d5               2019-03-25           dpkg-architecture(1)

Pages that refer to this page: dh_installdeb(1)dpkg-buildpackage(1)deb-src-control(5)deb-src-rules(5)debhelper(7)