gcov(1) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT | COLOPHON

GCOV(1)                            GNU                           GCOV(1)

NAME         top

       gcov - coverage testing tool

SYNOPSIS         top

       gcov [-v|--version] [-h|--help]
            [-a|--all-blocks]
            [-b|--branch-probabilities]
            [-c|--branch-counts]
            [-d|--display-progress]
            [-f|--function-summaries]
            [-i|--json-format]
            [-j|--human-readable]
            [-k|--use-colors]
            [-l|--long-file-names]
            [-m|--demangled-names]
            [-n|--no-output]
            [-o|--object-directory directory|file]
            [-p|--preserve-paths]
            [-q|--use-hotness-colors]
            [-r|--relative-only]
            [-s|--source-prefix directory]
            [-t|--stdout]
            [-u|--unconditional-branches]
            [-x|--hash-filenames]
            files

DESCRIPTION         top

       gcov is a test coverage program.  Use it in concert with GCC to
       analyze your programs to help create more efficient, faster
       running code and to discover untested parts of your program.  You
       can use gcov as a profiling tool to help discover where your
       optimization efforts will best affect your code.  You can also
       use gcov along with the other profiling tool, gprof, to assess
       which parts of your code use the greatest amount of computing
       time.

       Profiling tools help you analyze your code's performance.  Using
       a profiler such as gcov or gprof, you can find out some basic
       performance statistics, such as:

       *   how often each line of code executes

       *   what lines of code are actually executed

       *   how much computing time each section of code uses

       Once you know these things about how your code works when
       compiled, you can look at each module to see which modules should
       be optimized.  gcov helps you determine where to work on
       optimization.

       Software developers also use coverage testing in concert with
       testsuites, to make sure software is actually good enough for a
       release.  Testsuites can verify that a program works as expected;
       a coverage program tests to see how much of the program is
       exercised by the testsuite.  Developers can then determine what
       kinds of test cases need to be added to the testsuites to create
       both better testing and a better final product.

       You should compile your code without optimization if you plan to
       use gcov because the optimization, by combining some lines of
       code into one function, may not give you as much information as
       you need to look for `hot spots' where the code is using a great
       deal of computer time.  Likewise, because gcov accumulates
       statistics by line (at the lowest resolution), it works best with
       a programming style that places only one statement on each line.
       If you use complicated macros that expand to loops or to other
       control structures, the statistics are less helpful---they only
       report on the line where the macro call appears.  If your complex
       macros behave like functions, you can replace them with inline
       functions to solve this problem.

       gcov creates a logfile called sourcefile.gcov which indicates how
       many times each line of a source file sourcefile.c has executed.
       You can use these logfiles along with gprof to aid in fine-tuning
       the performance of your programs.  gprof gives timing information
       you can use along with the information you get from gcov.

       gcov works only on code compiled with GCC.  It is not compatible
       with any other profiling or test coverage mechanism.

OPTIONS         top

       -a
       --all-blocks
           Write individual execution counts for every basic block.
           Normally gcov outputs execution counts only for the main
           blocks of a line.  With this option you can determine if
           blocks within a single line are not being executed.

       -b
       --branch-probabilities
           Write branch frequencies to the output file, and write branch
           summary info to the standard output.  This option allows you
           to see how often each branch in your program was taken.
           Unconditional branches will not be shown, unless the -u
           option is given.

       -c
       --branch-counts
           Write branch frequencies as the number of branches taken,
           rather than the percentage of branches taken.

       -d
       --display-progress
           Display the progress on the standard output.

       -f
       --function-summaries
           Output summaries for each function in addition to the file
           level summary.

       -h
       --help
           Display help about using gcov (on the standard output), and
           exit without doing any further processing.

       -i
       --json-format
           Output gcov file in an easy-to-parse JSON intermediate format
           which does not require source code for generation.  The JSON
           file is compressed with gzip compression algorithm and the
           files have .gcov.json.gz extension.

           Structure of the JSON is following:

                   {
                     "current_working_directory": <current_working_directory>,
                     "data_file": <data_file>,
                     "format_version": <format_version>,
                     "gcc_version": <gcc_version>
                     "files": [<file>]
                   }

           Fields of the root element have following semantics:

           *   current_working_directory: working directory where a
               compilation unit was compiled

           *   data_file: name of the data file (GCDA)

           *   format_version: semantic version of the format

           *   gcc_version: version of the GCC compiler

           Each file has the following form:

                   {
                     "file": <file_name>,
                     "functions": [<function>],
                     "lines": [<line>]
                   }

           Fields of the file element have following semantics:

           *   file_name: name of the source file

           Each function has the following form:

                   {
                     "blocks": <blocks>,
                     "blocks_executed": <blocks_executed>,
                     "demangled_name": "<demangled_name>,
                     "end_column": <end_column>,
                     "end_line": <end_line>,
                     "execution_count": <execution_count>,
                     "name": <name>,
                     "start_column": <start_column>
                     "start_line": <start_line>
                   }

           Fields of the function element have following semantics:

           *   blocks: number of blocks that are in the function

           *   blocks_executed: number of executed blocks of the
               function

           *   demangled_name: demangled name of the function

           *   end_column: column in the source file where the function
               ends

           *   end_line: line in the source file where the function ends

           *   execution_count: number of executions of the function

           *   name: name of the function

           *   start_column: column in the source file where the
               function begins

           *   start_line: line in the source file where the function
               begins

           Note that line numbers and column numbers number from 1.  In
           the current implementation, start_line and start_column do
           not include any template parameters and the leading return
           type but that this is likely to be fixed in the future.

           Each line has the following form:

                   {
                     "branches": [<branch>],
                     "count": <count>,
                     "line_number": <line_number>,
                     "unexecuted_block": <unexecuted_block>
                     "function_name": <function_name>,
                   }

           Branches are present only with -b option.  Fields of the line
           element have following semantics:

           *   count: number of executions of the line

           *   line_number: line number

           *   unexecuted_block: flag whether the line contains an
               unexecuted block (not all statements on the line are
               executed)

           *   function_name: a name of a function this line belongs to
               (for a line with an inlined statements can be not set)

           Each branch has the following form:

                   {
                     "count": <count>,
                     "fallthrough": <fallthrough>,
                     "throw": <throw>
                   }

           Fields of the branch element have following semantics:

           *   count: number of executions of the branch

           *   fallthrough: true when the branch is a fall through
               branch

           *   throw: true when the branch is an exceptional branch

       -j
       --human-readable
           Write counts in human readable format (like 24.6k).

       -k
       --use-colors
           Use colors for lines of code that have zero coverage.  We use
           red color for non-exceptional lines and cyan for exceptional.
           Same colors are used for basic blocks with -a option.

       -l
       --long-file-names
           Create long file names for included source files.  For
           example, if the header file x.h contains code, and was
           included in the file a.c, then running gcov on the file a.c
           will produce an output file called a.c##x.h.gcov instead of
           x.h.gcov.  This can be useful if x.h is included in multiple
           source files and you want to see the individual
           contributions.  If you use the -p option, both the including
           and included file names will be complete path names.

       -m
       --demangled-names
           Display demangled function names in output. The default is to
           show mangled function names.

       -n
       --no-output
           Do not create the gcov output file.

       -o directory|file
       --object-directory directory
       --object-file file
           Specify either the directory containing the gcov data files,
           or the object path name.  The .gcno, and .gcda data files are
           searched for using this option.  If a directory is specified,
           the data files are in that directory and named after the
           input file name, without its extension.  If a file is
           specified here, the data files are named after that file,
           without its extension.

       -p
       --preserve-paths
           Preserve complete path information in the names of generated
           .gcov files.  Without this option, just the filename
           component is used.  With this option, all directories are
           used, with / characters translated to # characters, .
           directory components removed and unremoveable ..  components
           renamed to ^.  This is useful if sourcefiles are in several
           different directories.

       -q
       --use-hotness-colors
           Emit perf-like colored output for hot lines.  Legend of the
           color scale is printed at the very beginning of the output
           file.

       -r
       --relative-only
           Only output information about source files with a relative
           pathname (after source prefix elision).  Absolute paths are
           usually system header files and coverage of any inline
           functions therein is normally uninteresting.

       -s directory
       --source-prefix directory
           A prefix for source file names to remove when generating the
           output coverage files.  This option is useful when building
           in a separate directory, and the pathname to the source
           directory is not wanted when determining the output file
           names.  Note that this prefix detection is applied before
           determining whether the source file is absolute.

       -t
       --stdout
           Output to standard output instead of output files.

       -u
       --unconditional-branches
           When branch probabilities are given, include those of
           unconditional branches.  Unconditional branches are normally
           not interesting.

       -v
       --version
           Display the gcov version number (on the standard output), and
           exit without doing any further processing.

       -w
       --verbose
           Print verbose informations related to basic blocks and arcs.

       -x
       --hash-filenames
           When using --preserve-paths, gcov uses the full pathname of
           the source files to create an output filename.  This can lead
           to long filenames that can overflow filesystem limits.  This
           option creates names of the form source-file##md5.gcov, where
           the source-file component is the final filename part and the
           md5 component is calculated from the full mangled name that
           would have been used otherwise.  The option is an alternative
           to the --preserve-paths on systems which have a filesystem
           limit.

       gcov should be run with the current directory the same as that
       when you invoked the compiler.  Otherwise it will not be able to
       locate the source files.  gcov produces files called
       mangledname.gcov in the current directory.  These contain the
       coverage information of the source file they correspond to.  One
       .gcov file is produced for each source (or header) file
       containing code, which was compiled to produce the data files.
       The mangledname part of the output file name is usually simply
       the source file name, but can be something more complicated if
       the -l or -p options are given.  Refer to those options for
       details.

       If you invoke gcov with multiple input files, the contributions
       from each input file are summed.  Typically you would invoke it
       with the same list of files as the final link of your executable.

       The .gcov files contain the : separated fields along with program
       source code.  The format is

               <execution_count>:<line_number>:<source line text>

       Additional block information may succeed each line, when
       requested by command line option.  The execution_count is - for
       lines containing no code.  Unexecuted lines are marked ##### or
       =====, depending on whether they are reachable by non-exceptional
       paths or only exceptional paths such as C++ exception handlers,
       respectively. Given the -a option, unexecuted blocks are marked
       $$$$$ or %%%%%, depending on whether a basic block is reachable
       via non-exceptional or exceptional paths.  Executed basic blocks
       having a statement with zero execution_count end with * character
       and are colored with magenta color with the -k option.  This
       functionality is not supported in Ada.

       Note that GCC can completely remove the bodies of functions that
       are not needed -- for instance if they are inlined everywhere.
       Such functions are marked with -, which can be confusing.  Use
       the -fkeep-inline-functions and -fkeep-static-functions options
       to retain these functions and allow gcov to properly show their
       execution_count.

       Some lines of information at the start have line_number of zero.
       These preamble lines are of the form

               -:0:<tag>:<value>

       The ordering and number of these preamble lines will be augmented
       as gcov development progresses --- do not rely on them remaining
       unchanged.  Use tag to locate a particular preamble line.

       The additional block information is of the form

               <tag> <information>

       The information is human readable, but designed to be simple
       enough for machine parsing too.

       When printing percentages, 0% and 100% are only printed when the
       values are exactly 0% and 100% respectively.  Other values which
       would conventionally be rounded to 0% or 100% are instead printed
       as the nearest non-boundary value.

       When using gcov, you must first compile your program with a
       special GCC option --coverage.  This tells the compiler to
       generate additional information needed by gcov (basically a flow
       graph of the program) and also includes additional code in the
       object files for generating the extra profiling information
       needed by gcov.  These additional files are placed in the
       directory where the object file is located.

       Running the program will cause profile output to be generated.
       For each source file compiled with -fprofile-arcs, an
       accompanying .gcda file will be placed in the object file
       directory.

       Running gcov with your program's source file names as arguments
       will now produce a listing of the code along with frequency of
       execution for each line.  For example, if your program is called
       tmp.cpp, this is what you see when you use the basic gcov
       facility:

               $ g++ --coverage tmp.cpp
               $ a.out
               $ gcov tmp.cpp -m
               File 'tmp.cpp'
               Lines executed:92.86% of 14
               Creating 'tmp.cpp.gcov'

       The file tmp.cpp.gcov contains output from gcov.  Here is a
       sample:

                       -:    0:Source:tmp.cpp
                       -:    0:Working directory:/home/gcc/testcase
                       -:    0:Graph:tmp.gcno
                       -:    0:Data:tmp.gcda
                       -:    0:Runs:1
                       -:    0:Programs:1
                       -:    1:#include <stdio.h>
                       -:    2:
                       -:    3:template<class T>
                       -:    4:class Foo
                       -:    5:{
                       -:    6:  public:
                      1*:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::Foo():
                   #####:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::Foo():
                       1:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
                      2*:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::inc():
                   #####:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::inc():
                       2:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
                       -:    9:
                       -:   10:  private:
                       -:   11:  int b;
                       -:   12:};
                       -:   13:
                       -:   14:template class Foo<int>;
                       -:   15:template class Foo<char>;
                       -:   16:
                       -:   17:int
                       1:   18:main (void)
                       -:   19:{
                       -:   20:  int i, total;
                       1:   21:  Foo<int> counter;
                       -:   22:
                       1:   23:  counter.inc();
                       1:   24:  counter.inc();
                       1:   25:  total = 0;
                       -:   26:
                      11:   27:  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
                      10:   28:    total += i;
                       -:   29:
                      1*:   30:  int v = total > 100 ? 1 : 2;
                       -:   31:
                       1:   32:  if (total != 45)
                   #####:   33:    printf ("Failure\n");
                       -:   34:  else
                       1:   35:    printf ("Success\n");
                       1:   36:  return 0;
                       -:   37:}

       Note that line 7 is shown in the report multiple times.  First
       occurrence presents total number of execution of the line and the
       next two belong to instances of class Foo constructors.  As you
       can also see, line 30 contains some unexecuted basic blocks and
       thus execution count has asterisk symbol.

       When you use the -a option, you will get individual block counts,
       and the output looks like this:

                       -:    0:Source:tmp.cpp
                       -:    0:Working directory:/home/gcc/testcase
                       -:    0:Graph:tmp.gcno
                       -:    0:Data:tmp.gcda
                       -:    0:Runs:1
                       -:    0:Programs:1
                       -:    1:#include <stdio.h>
                       -:    2:
                       -:    3:template<class T>
                       -:    4:class Foo
                       -:    5:{
                       -:    6:  public:
                      1*:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::Foo():
                   #####:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::Foo():
                       1:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
                      2*:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::inc():
                   #####:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::inc():
                       2:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
                       -:    9:
                       -:   10:  private:
                       -:   11:  int b;
                       -:   12:};
                       -:   13:
                       -:   14:template class Foo<int>;
                       -:   15:template class Foo<char>;
                       -:   16:
                       -:   17:int
                       1:   18:main (void)
                       -:   19:{
                       -:   20:  int i, total;
                       1:   21:  Foo<int> counter;
                       1:   21-block  0
                       -:   22:
                       1:   23:  counter.inc();
                       1:   23-block  0
                       1:   24:  counter.inc();
                       1:   24-block  0
                       1:   25:  total = 0;
                       -:   26:
                      11:   27:  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
                       1:   27-block  0
                      11:   27-block  1
                      10:   28:    total += i;
                      10:   28-block  0
                       -:   29:
                      1*:   30:  int v = total > 100 ? 1 : 2;
                       1:   30-block  0
                   %%%%%:   30-block  1
                       1:   30-block  2
                       -:   31:
                       1:   32:  if (total != 45)
                       1:   32-block  0
                   #####:   33:    printf ("Failure\n");
                   %%%%%:   33-block  0
                       -:   34:  else
                       1:   35:    printf ("Success\n");
                       1:   35-block  0
                       1:   36:  return 0;
                       1:   36-block  0
                       -:   37:}

       In this mode, each basic block is only shown on one line -- the
       last line of the block.  A multi-line block will only contribute
       to the execution count of that last line, and other lines will
       not be shown to contain code, unless previous blocks end on those
       lines.  The total execution count of a line is shown and
       subsequent lines show the execution counts for individual blocks
       that end on that line.  After each block, the branch and call
       counts of the block will be shown, if the -b option is given.

       Because of the way GCC instruments calls, a call count can be
       shown after a line with no individual blocks.  As you can see,
       line 33 contains a basic block that was not executed.

       When you use the -b option, your output looks like this:

                       -:    0:Source:tmp.cpp
                       -:    0:Working directory:/home/gcc/testcase
                       -:    0:Graph:tmp.gcno
                       -:    0:Data:tmp.gcda
                       -:    0:Runs:1
                       -:    0:Programs:1
                       -:    1:#include <stdio.h>
                       -:    2:
                       -:    3:template<class T>
                       -:    4:class Foo
                       -:    5:{
                       -:    6:  public:
                      1*:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::Foo():
               function Foo<char>::Foo() called 0 returned 0% blocks executed 0%
                   #####:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::Foo():
               function Foo<int>::Foo() called 1 returned 100% blocks executed 100%
                       1:    7:  Foo(): b (1000) {}
               ------------------
                      2*:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<char>::inc():
               function Foo<char>::inc() called 0 returned 0% blocks executed 0%
                   #####:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
               Foo<int>::inc():
               function Foo<int>::inc() called 2 returned 100% blocks executed 100%
                       2:    8:  void inc () { b++; }
               ------------------
                       -:    9:
                       -:   10:  private:
                       -:   11:  int b;
                       -:   12:};
                       -:   13:
                       -:   14:template class Foo<int>;
                       -:   15:template class Foo<char>;
                       -:   16:
                       -:   17:int
               function main called 1 returned 100% blocks executed 81%
                       1:   18:main (void)
                       -:   19:{
                       -:   20:  int i, total;
                       1:   21:  Foo<int> counter;
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       -:   22:
                       1:   23:  counter.inc();
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       1:   24:  counter.inc();
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       1:   25:  total = 0;
                       -:   26:
                      11:   27:  for (i = 0; i < 10; i++)
               branch  0 taken 91% (fallthrough)
               branch  1 taken 9%
                      10:   28:    total += i;
                       -:   29:
                      1*:   30:  int v = total > 100 ? 1 : 2;
               branch  0 taken 0% (fallthrough)
               branch  1 taken 100%
                       -:   31:
                       1:   32:  if (total != 45)
               branch  0 taken 0% (fallthrough)
               branch  1 taken 100%
                   #####:   33:    printf ("Failure\n");
               call    0 never executed
               branch  1 never executed
               branch  2 never executed
                       -:   34:  else
                       1:   35:    printf ("Success\n");
               call    0 returned 100%
               branch  1 taken 100% (fallthrough)
               branch  2 taken 0% (throw)
                       1:   36:  return 0;
                       -:   37:}

       For each function, a line is printed showing how many times the
       function is called, how many times it returns and what percentage
       of the function's blocks were executed.

       For each basic block, a line is printed after the last line of
       the basic block describing the branch or call that ends the basic
       block.  There can be multiple branches and calls listed for a
       single source line if there are multiple basic blocks that end on
       that line.  In this case, the branches and calls are each given a
       number.  There is no simple way to map these branches and calls
       back to source constructs.  In general, though, the lowest
       numbered branch or call will correspond to the leftmost construct
       on the source line.

       For a branch, if it was executed at least once, then a percentage
       indicating the number of times the branch was taken divided by
       the number of times the branch was executed will be printed.
       Otherwise, the message "never executed" is printed.

       For a call, if it was executed at least once, then a percentage
       indicating the number of times the call returned divided by the
       number of times the call was executed will be printed.  This will
       usually be 100%, but may be less for functions that call "exit"
       or "longjmp", and thus may not return every time they are called.

       The execution counts are cumulative.  If the example program were
       executed again without removing the .gcda file, the count for the
       number of times each line in the source was executed would be
       added to the results of the previous run(s).  This is potentially
       useful in several ways.  For example, it could be used to
       accumulate data over a number of program runs as part of a test
       verification suite, or to provide more accurate long-term
       information over a large number of program runs.

       The data in the .gcda files is saved immediately before the
       program exits.  For each source file compiled with
       -fprofile-arcs, the profiling code first attempts to read in an
       existing .gcda file; if the file doesn't match the executable
       (differing number of basic block counts) it will ignore the
       contents of the file.  It then adds in the new execution counts
       and finally writes the data to the file.

   Using gcov with GCC Optimization
       If you plan to use gcov to help optimize your code, you must
       first compile your program with a special GCC option --coverage.
       Aside from that, you can use any other GCC options; but if you
       want to prove that every single line in your program was
       executed, you should not compile with optimization at the same
       time.  On some machines the optimizer can eliminate some simple
       code lines by combining them with other lines.  For example, code
       like this:

               if (a != b)
                 c = 1;
               else
                 c = 0;

       can be compiled into one instruction on some machines.  In this
       case, there is no way for gcov to calculate separate execution
       counts for each line because there isn't separate code for each
       line.  Hence the gcov output looks like this if you compiled the
       program with optimization:

                     100:   12:if (a != b)
                     100:   13:  c = 1;
                     100:   14:else
                     100:   15:  c = 0;

       The output shows that this block of code, combined by
       optimization, executed 100 times.  In one sense this result is
       correct, because there was only one instruction representing all
       four of these lines.  However, the output does not indicate how
       many times the result was 0 and how many times the result was 1.

       Inlineable functions can create unexpected line counts.  Line
       counts are shown for the source code of the inlineable function,
       but what is shown depends on where the function is inlined, or if
       it is not inlined at all.

       If the function is not inlined, the compiler must emit an out of
       line copy of the function, in any object file that needs it.  If
       fileA.o and fileB.o both contain out of line bodies of a
       particular inlineable function, they will also both contain
       coverage counts for that function.  When fileA.o and fileB.o are
       linked together, the linker will, on many systems, select one of
       those out of line bodies for all calls to that function, and
       remove or ignore the other.  Unfortunately, it will not remove
       the coverage counters for the unused function body.  Hence when
       instrumented, all but one use of that function will show zero
       counts.

       If the function is inlined in several places, the block structure
       in each location might not be the same.  For instance, a
       condition might now be calculable at compile time in some
       instances.  Because the coverage of all the uses of the inline
       function will be shown for the same source lines, the line counts
       themselves might seem inconsistent.

       Long-running applications can use the "__gcov_reset" and
       "__gcov_dump" facilities to restrict profile collection to the
       program region of interest. Calling "__gcov_reset(void)" will
       clear all profile counters to zero, and calling
       "__gcov_dump(void)" will cause the profile information collected
       at that point to be dumped to .gcda output files.  Instrumented
       applications use a static destructor with priority 99 to invoke
       the "__gcov_dump" function. Thus "__gcov_dump" is executed after
       all user defined static destructors, as well as handlers
       registered with "atexit".  If an executable loads a dynamic
       shared object via dlopen functionality, -Wl,--dynamic-list-data
       is needed to dump all profile data.

       Profiling run-time library reports various errors related to
       profile manipulation and profile saving.  Errors are printed into
       standard error output or GCOV_ERROR_FILE file, if environment
       variable is used.  In order to terminate immediately after an
       errors occurs set GCOV_EXIT_AT_ERROR environment variable.  That
       can help users to find profile clashing which leads to a
       misleading profile.

SEE ALSO         top

       gpl(7), gfdl(7), fsf-funding(7), gcc(1) and the Info entry for
       gcc.

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright (c) 1996-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
       document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
       Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
       Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being "GNU General Public
       License" and "Funding Free Software", the Front-Cover texts being
       (a) (see below), and with the Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see
       below).  A copy of the license is included in the gfdl(7) man
       page.

       (a) The FSF's Front-Cover Text is:

            A GNU Manual

       (b) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is:

            You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
            software.  Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise
            funds for GNU development.

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the gcc (GNU Compiler Collection) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://gcc.gnu.org/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨http://gcc.gnu.org/bugs/⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the tarball gcc-9.3.0.tar.gz fetched from
       ⟨ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/misc/gcc/releases/⟩ on 2021-04-01.  If you
       discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page,
       or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
       the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original
       manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

gcc-9.3.0                      2020-03-12                        GCOV(1)

Pages that refer to this page: g++(1)gcc(1)gcov-tool(1)gfortran(1)