gropdf(1) — Linux manual page

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gropdf(1)                  General Commands Manual                 gropdf(1)

Name         top

       gropdf - PDF driver for groff

Synopsis         top

       gropdf [-dels] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-p paper-size] [-u [cmapfile]]
              [-y foundry] [file ...]

       gropdf -v
       gropdf --version

Description         top

       gropdf translates the output of GNU troff to PDF.  Normally gropdf
       should be invoked by using the groff command with a -Tpdf option.  If
       no files are given, gropdf reads the standard input.  A filename of -
       also causes gropdf to read the standard input.  PDF output is written
       to the standard output.  When gropdf is run by groff options can be
       passed to gropdf using groff's -P option.

       See section “Font Installation” below for a guide how to install
       fonts for gropdf.

Options         top

       Whitespace is permitted between a command-line option and its

       -d     Include debug information as comments within the PDF.  Also
              produces an uncompressed PDF.

       -e     Forces gropdf to embed all fonts (even the 14 base PDF fonts).

       -F dir Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path for font, and
              device description files; name is the name of the device,
              usually pdf.

       -I dir This option may be used to add a directory to the search path
              for files named in \X'pdf: pdfpic' escape.  The current
              directory is always searched first.  This option may be
              specified more than once; the directories are then searched in
              the order specified.

              No directory search is performed for files with an absolute
              file name.

       -l     Orient the document in landscape format.

       -p paper-size
              Set physical dimension of output medium.  This overrides the
              papersize, paperlength, and paperwidth commands in the DESC
              file; it accepts the same arguments as the papersize command.
              See groff_font(5) for details.

       -s     Append a comment line to end of PDF showing statistics, i.e.
              number of pages in document.  Ghostscript's ps2pdf complains
              about this line if it is included, but works anyway.

       -u      [cmapfile] Gropdf normally includes a ToUnicode CMap with any
              font created using text.enc as the encoding file, this makes
              it easier to search for words which contain ligatures.  You
              can include your own CMap by specifying a cmapfile or have no
              CMap at all by omitting the argument.

              Print the version number and exit.

       -y foundry
              Set the foundry to use for selecting fonts of the same name.

Usage         top

       The input to gropdf must be in the format output by troff(1).  This
       is described in groff_out(5).

       In addition, the device and font description files for the device
       used must meet certain requirements: The resolution must be an
       integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The pdf device uses a
       resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file must contain a valid paper size; see
       groff_font(5) for more information.  gropdf uses the same Type 1
       Adobe PostScript fonts as the grops device driver.  Although the PDF
       Standard allows the use of other font types (like TrueType) this
       implementation only accepts the Type 1 PostScript font.  Fewer Type 1
       fonts are supported natively in PDF documents than the standard 35
       fonts supported by grops and all PostScript printers, but all the
       fonts are available since any which aren't supported natively are
       automatically embedded in the PDF.

       gropdf supports the concept of foundries, that is different versions
       of basically the same font.  During install a Foundry file controls
       where fonts are found and builds groff fonts from the files it
       discovers on your system.

       Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  Lines
       starting with # and blank lines are ignored.  The code for each
       character given in the font file must correspond to the code in the
       default encoding for the font.  This code can be used with the \N
       escape sequence in troff to select the character, even if the
       character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the font
       file must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths given in the
       font file must match the widths used in the PostScript font.

       Note that gropdf is currently only able to display the first 256
       glyphs in any font.  This restriction will be lifted in a later

       gropdf can automatically include the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Fonts may be in PFA or PFB format.

       Any downloadable fonts which should, when required, be included by
       gropdf must be listed in the file /usr/local/share/groff/1.22.4/
       font/devpdf/download; this should consist of lines of the form

              foundry font filename

       where foundry is the foundry name or blank for the default foundry.
       font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name of
       the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are ignored; fields must be separated by tabs (spaces are not
       allowed); filename is searched for using the same mechanism that is
       used for groff font metric files.  The download file itself is also
       searched for using this mechanism; currently, only the first found
       file in the font path is used.  Foundry names are usually a single
       character (such as ‘U’ for the URW Foundry) or blank for the default
       foundry.  This default uses the same fonts as ghostscript uses when
       it embeds fonts in a PDF file.

       In the default setup there are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted
       at font positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM,
       C, H, HN, N, P, and T having members in each of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book
              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
              AB     AvantGarde-Demi
              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
              BMR    Bookman-Light
              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
              BMB    Bookman-Demi
              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
              CR     Courier
              CI     Courier-Oblique
              CB     Courier-Bold
              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
              HR     Helvetica
              HI     Helvetica-Oblique
              HB     Helvetica-Bold
              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
              PR     Palatino-Roman
              PI     Palatino-Italic
              PB     Palatino-Bold
              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
              TR     Times-Roman
              TI     Times-Italic
              TB     Times-Bold
              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font.
       The lower case greek characters are automatically slanted (to match
       the SymbolSlanted font (SS) available to PostScript).  Zapf Dingbats
       is available as ZD, the "hand pointing left" glyph (\[lh]) is
       available since it has been defined using the \X'pdf: xrev' extension
       which reverses the direction of letters within words.

       The default color for \m and \M is black.

       gropdf understands some of the X commands produced using the \X
       escape sequences supported by grops.  Specifically, the following is

       \X'ps: invis'
              Suppress output.

       \X'ps: endinvis'
              Stop suppressing output.

       \X'ps: exec gsave currentpoint 2 copy translate n rotate neg exch neg
       exch translate'
              where n is the angle of rotation.  This is to support the
              align command in gpic.

       \X'ps: exec grestore'
              Again used by gpic to restore after rotation.

       \X'ps: exec n setlinejoin'
              where n can be one of the following values.

              0 = Miter join
              1 = Round join
              2 = Bevel join

       \X'ps: exec n setlinecap'
              where n can be one of the following values.

              0 = Butt cap
              1 = Round cap, and
              2 = Projecting square cap

       \X'ps: ... pdfmark'
              All the pdfmark macros installed by using -m pdfmark or -m
              mspdf (see documentation in pdfmark.pdf).  A subset of these
              macros are installed automatically when you use -Tpdf so you
              should not need to use ‘-m pdfmark’ for using most of the PDF

       gropdf also supports a subset of the commands introduced in
       present.tmac.  Specifically it supports:-


       Which allows you to create presentation type PDFs.  Many of the other
       commands are already available in other macro packages.

       These commands are implemented with groff X commands:-

       \X'ps: exec %%%%PAUSE
              The section before this is treated as a block and is
              introduced using the current BLOCK transition setting (see
              ‘pdf: transition’ below).  This command can be introduced
              using the macro .pdfpause.

       \X'ps: exec %%%%BEGINONCE
              Any text following this command (up to %%%%ENDONCE) is shown
              only once, the next %%%%PAUSE will remove it.  If producing a
              non presentation pdf, i.e. ignoring the pauses, see
              GROPDF_NOSLIDE below, this text is ignored.

       \X'ps: exec %%%%ENDONCE
              This terminates the block defined by %%%%BEGINONCE.  This pair
              of commands is what implements the .BLOCKS Once/.BLOCKE
              commands in present.tmac.

       The mom macro set already has integration with these extensions so
       you can build slides with mom.

       If you use present.tmac with gropdf there is no need to run the
       program presentps(1) since the output will already be a presentation

       All other ps: tags are silently ignored.

       One \X special used by the DVI driver is also recognised:

              where the paper-size parameter is the same as the papersize
              command.  See groff_font(5) for details.  This means that you
              can alter the page size at will within the PDF file being
              created by gropdf.  If you do want to change the paper size,
              it must be done before you start creating the page.

       In addition, gropdf supports its own suite of pdf: tags.  The
       following tags are supported:

       \X'pdf: pdfpic file alignment width height line-length'
              Place an image of the specified width containing the PDF
              drawing from file file of desired width and height (if height
              is missing or zero then it is scaled proportionally).  If
              alignment is -L the drawing is left aligned.  If it is -C or
              -R a linelength greater than the width of the drawing is
              required as well.  If width is specified as zero then the
              width is scaled in proportion to the height.

       \X'pdf: xrev'
              This toggles a flag which reverses the direction of printing
              letter by letter, i.e., each separate letter is reversed, not
              the entire word.  This is useful for reversing the direction
              of glyphs in the Dingbats font.  To return to normal printing
              repeat the command again.

       \X'pdf: markstart /ANN definition'
              The macros which support PDF Bookmarks use this call
              internally to start the definition of bookmark hotspot (user
              will have called ‘.pdfhref L’ with the text which will become
              the ‘hot spot’ region).  Normally this is never used except
              from within the pdfmark macros.

       \X'pdf: markend'
              The macros which support PDF Bookmarks use this call
              internally to stop the definition of bookmark hotspot (user
              will have called ‘.pdfhref L’ with the text which will become
              the ‘hot spot’ region).  Normally this is never used except
              from within the pdfmark macros.

       \X'pdf: marksuspend'
       \X'pdf: markrestart'
              If you are using page traps to produce headings, footings,
              etc., you need to use these in case a ‘hot spot’ crosses a
              page boundary, otherwise any text output by the heading or
              footing macro will be marked as part of the ‘hot spot’.  To
              stop this happening just place ‘.pdfmarksuspend’ and
              ‘.pdfmarkrestart’ at the start and end of the page trap macro,
              respectively.  (These are just convenience macros which emit
              the \X code.  These macros must only be used within page

       \X'pdf: pagename name
              This gives the current page a name.

              There are two default names for any document which do not need
              to be declared ‘top’ and ‘bottom’.

              The convenience command for this is .pdfpagename.

       \X'pdf: switchtopage when name
              Normally each new page is appended to the end of the document,
              this command allows following pages to be inserted at a
              ‘named’ position within the document (see pagename command
              above).  ‘when’ can be either ‘after’ or ‘before’.  If it is
              ommitted it defaults to ‘before’.

              The convenience command for this is .pdfswitchtopage.  It
              should be used at the end of the page before you want the
              switch to happen.

              This allows pages such as a TOC to be moved to elsewhere in
              the document, but more esoteric uses are possible.

       \X'pdf: transition'feature mode duration dimension motion direction
       scale bool

              feature can be either SLIDE or BLOCK.  When it is SLIDE the
              transition is used when a new slide is introduced to the
              screen, if BLOCK then this transition is used for the
              individual blocks which make up the slide.
              mode is the transition type between slides:-

                     Split - Two lines sweep across the screen, revealing
                     the new page.  The lines may be either horizontal or
                     vertical and may move inward from the edges of the page
                     or outward from the center, as specified by the
                     dimension and motion entries, respectively.
                     Blinds - Multiple lines, evenly spaced across the
                     screen, synchronously sweep in the same direction to
                     reveal the new page.  The lines may be either
                     horizontal or vertical, as specified by the dimension
                      entry.  Horizontal lines move downward; vertical lines
                     move to the right.
                     Box - A rectangular box sweeps inward from the edges of
                     the page or outward from the center, as specified by
                     the motion entry, revealing the new page.
                     Wipe - A single line sweeps across the screen from one
                     edge to the other in the direction specified by the
                     direction entry, revealing the new page.
                     Dissolve - The old page dissolves gradually to reveal
                     the new one.
                     Glitter - Similar to Dissolve, except that the effect
                     sweeps across the page in a wide band moving from one
                     side of the screen to the other in the direction
                     specified by the direction entry.
                     R - The new page simply replaces the old one with no
                     special transition effect; the direction entry shall be
                     Fly - (PDF 1.5) Changes are flown out or in (as
                     specified by motion), in the direction specified by
                     direction, to or from a location that is offscreen
                     except when direction is None.
                     Push - (PDF 1.5) The old page slides off the screen
                     while the new page slides in, pushing the old page out
                     in the direction specified by direction.
                     Cover - (PDF 1.5) The new page slides on to the screen
                     in the direction specified by direction, covering the
                     old page.
                     Uncover - (PDF 1.5) The old page slides off the screen
                     in the direction specified by direction, uncovering the
                     new page in the direction specified by direction.
                     Fade - (PDF 1.5) The new page gradually becomes visible
                     through the old one.

              duration is the length of the transition in seconds (default

              dimension (Optional; Split and Blinds transition styles only)
              The dimension in which the specified transition effect shall
              occur: H Horizontal, or V Vertical.

              motion (Optional; Split, Box and Fly transition styles only)
              The direction of motion for the specified transition effect: I
              Inward from the edges of the page, or O Outward from the
              center of the page.

              direction (Optional; Wipe, Glitter, Fly, Cover, Uncover and
              Push transition styles only) The direction in which the
              specified transition effect shall moves, expressed in degrees
              counterclockwise starting from a left-to-right direction.  If
              the value is a number, it shall be one of: 0 = Left to right,
              90 = Bottom to top (Wipe only), 180 = Right to left (Wipe
              only), 270 = Top to bottom, 315 = Top-left to bottom-right
              (Glitter only) The value can be None, which is relevant only
              for the Fly transition when the value of scale is not 1.0.

              scale (Optional; PDF 1.5; Fly transition style only) The
              starting or ending scale at which the changes shall be drawn.
              If motion specifies an inward transition, the scale of the
              changes drawn shall progress from scale to 1.0 over the course
              of the transition.  If motion specifies an outward transition,
              the scale of the changes drawn shall progress from 1.0 to
              scale over the course of the transition

              bool (Optional; PDF 1.5; Fly transition style only) If true,
              the area that shall be flown in is rectangular and opaque.

              This command can be used by calling the macro .pdftransition
              using the parameters described above.  Any of the parameters
              may be replaced with a "." which signifies the parameter
              retains its previous value, also any trailing missing
              parameters are ignored.

              Note: not all PDF Readers support any or all these

   Importing graphics
       gropdf only supports importing other PDF files as graphics.  But that
       PDF file may contain any of the graphic formats supported by the PDF
       standard (such as JPEG, PNG, GIF, etc.).  So any application which
       outputs PDF can be used as an embedded file in gropdf.  The PDF file
       you wish to insert must be a single page and the drawing must just
       fit inside the media size of the PDF file.  So, in inkscape(1) or
       gimp(1) (for example) make sure the canvas size just fits the image.

       The PDF parser used in gropdf has not been rigorously tested with all
       possible applications which produce PDFs.  If you find a single page
       PDF which fails to import properly, it is worth running it through
       the pdftk(1) program by issuing the command:

              pdftk oldfile.pdf output newfile.pdf

       You may find that newfile.pdf will now load successfully.

   TrueType and other font formats
       gropdf does not support any other fonts except Adobe Type 1 (PFA or

Font Installation         top

       This section gives a summary of the above explanations; it can serve
       as a step-by-step font installation guide for gropdf.

        ·  Convert your font to something groff understands.  This is either
           a PostScript Type 1 font in either PFA or PFB, together with an
           AFM file.

           The very first line in a PFA/PFB file contains this:


           A PFB file has this also in the first line, but the string is
           preceded with some binary bytes.

        ·  Convert the AFM file to a groff font description file with the
           afmtodit(1) program.  An example call is

                  afmtodit Foo-Bar-Bold.afm map/textmap FBB

           which converts the metric file ‘Foo-Bar-Bold.afm’ to the groff
           font ‘FBB’.  If you have a font family which comes with normal,
           bold, italic, and bold italic faces, it is recommended to use the
           letters R, B, I, and BI, respectively, as postfixes in the groff
           font names to make groff's ‘.fam’ request work.  An example is
           groff's built-in Times-Roman font: The font family name is T, and
           the groff font names are TR, TB, TI, and TBI.

        ·  Install both the groff font description files and the fonts in a
           ‘devpdf’ subdirectory of the font path which groff finds.  See
           section “Environment” in troff(1) for the actual value of the
           font path.  Note that groff doesn't use the AFM files (but it is
           a good idea to store them anyway).

        ·  Register all fonts which must be downloaded to the printer in the
           devpdf/download file.  Only the first occurrence of this file in
           the font path is read.  This means that you should copy the
           default download file to the first directory in your font path
           and add your fonts there.  To continue the above example we
           assume that the PS font name for Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa is
           ‘XY-Foo-Bar-Bold’ (the PS font name is stored in the internalname
           field in the FBB file) and belongs to foundry ‘F’ thus the
           following line should be added to download:

                  F XY-Foo-Bar-Bold Foo-Bar-Bold.pfa

           Use a tab character to separate the fields, and the ‘foundry’
           field should be null for the default foundry.

Environment         top

              A list of directories in which to search for the devname
              directory in addition to the default ones.  If, in the
              download file, the font file has been specified with a full
              path, no directories are searched.  See troff(1) and
              groff_font(5) for more details.

              If this is set true, gropdf will ignore all commands which
              produce a presentation pdf, and produce a normal pdf instead.

              A timestamp (expressed as seconds since the Unix epoch) to use
              as the creation timestamp in place of the current time.

Files         top

              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              Font description file for font F (using foundry U rather than
              the default foundry).

              List of downloadable fonts.

              A Perl script used during install to locate suitable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with gropdf; automatically loaded by troffrc.

See Also         top

       afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), groff_font(5), groff_out(5)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the groff (GNU troff) project.  Information
       about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2020-08-13.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-08-12.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to

groff            16 May 2020                       gropdf(1)

Pages that refer to this page: afmtodit(1)groff(1)pdfmom(1)pfbtops(1)groff_out(5)