pgrep(1) — Linux manual page


PGREP(1)                        User Commands                       PGREP(1)

NAME         top

       pgrep,  pkill  -  look up or signal processes based on name and other

SYNOPSIS         top

       pgrep [options] pattern
       pkill [options] pattern

DESCRIPTION         top

       pgrep looks through the currently running processes and lists the
       process IDs which match the selection criteria to stdout.  All the
       criteria have to match.  For example,

              $ pgrep -u root sshd

       will only list the processes called sshd AND owned by root.  On the
       other hand,

              $ pgrep -u root,daemon

       will list the processes owned by root OR daemon.

       pkill will send the specified signal (by default SIGTERM) to each
       process instead of listing them on stdout.

OPTIONS         top

       --signal signal
              Defines the signal to send to each matched process.  Either
              the numeric or the symbolic signal name can be used.  (pkill

       -c, --count
              Suppress normal output; instead print a count of matching
              processes.  When count does not match anything, e.g. returns
              zero, the command will return non-zero value.

       -d, --delimiter delimiter
              Sets the string used to delimit each process ID in the output
              (by default a newline).  (pgrep only.)

       -f, --full
              The pattern is normally only matched against the process name.
              When -f is set, the full command line is used.

       -g, --pgroup pgrp,...
              Only match processes in the process group IDs listed.  Process
              group 0 is translated into pgrep's or pkill's own process

       -G, --group gid,...
              Only match processes whose real group ID is listed.  Either
              the numerical or symbolical value may be used.

       -i, --ignore-case
              Match processes case-insensitively.

       -l, --list-name
              List the process name as well as the process ID.  (pgrep

       -a, --list-full
              List the full command line as well as the process ID.  (pgrep

       -n, --newest
              Select only the newest (most recently started) of the matching

       -o, --oldest
              Select only the oldest (least recently started) of the
              matching processes.

       -O, --older secs
              Select processes older than secs.

       -P, --parent ppid,...
              Only match processes whose parent process ID is listed.

       -s, --session sid,...
              Only match processes whose process session ID is listed.
              Session ID 0 is translated into pgrep's or pkill's own session

       -t, --terminal term,...
              Only match processes whose controlling terminal is listed.
              The terminal name should be specified without the "/dev/"

       -u, --euid euid,...
              Only match processes whose effective user ID is listed.
              Either the numerical or symbolical value may be used.

       -U, --uid uid,...
              Only match processes whose real user ID is listed.  Either the
              numerical or symbolical value may be used.

       -v, --inverse
              Negates the matching.  This option is usually used in pgrep's
              context.  In pkill's context the short option is disabled to
              avoid accidental usage of the option.

       -w, --lightweight
              Shows all thread ids instead of pids in pgrep's context.  In
              pkill's context this option is disabled.

       -x, --exact
              Only match processes whose names (or command lines if -f is
              specified) exactly match the pattern.

       -F, --pidfile file
              Read PIDs from file.  This option is perhaps more useful for
              pkill than pgrep.

       -L, --logpidfile
              Fail if pidfile (see -F) not locked.

       -r, --runstates D,R,S,Z,...
              Match only processes which match the process state.

       --ns pid
              Match processes that belong to the same namespaces. Required
              to run as root to match processes from other users. See
              --nslist for how to limit which namespaces to match.

       --nslist name,...
              Match only the provided namespaces. Available namespaces: ipc,
              mnt, net, pid, user,uts.

       -q, --queue value
              Use sigqueue(3) rather than kill(2) and the value argument is
              used to specify an integer to be sent with the signal. If the
              receiving process has installed a handler for this signal
              using the SA_SIGINFO flag to sigaction(2) , then it can obtain
              this data via the si_value field of the siginfo_t structure.

       -V, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       -h, --help
              Display help and exit.

OPERANDS         top

              Specifies an Extended Regular Expression for matching against
              the process names or command lines.

EXAMPLES         top

       Example 1: Find the process ID of the named daemon:

              $ pgrep -u root named

       Example 2: Make syslog reread its configuration file:

              $ pkill -HUP syslogd

       Example 3: Give detailed information on all xterm processes:

              $ ps -fp $(pgrep -d, -x xterm)

       Example 4: Make all chrome processes run nicer:

              $ renice +4 $(pgrep chrome)

EXIT STATUS         top

       0      One or more processes matched the criteria. For pkill the
              process must also have been successfully signalled.
       1      No processes matched or none of them could be signalled.
       2      Syntax error in the command line.
       3      Fatal error: out of memory etc.

NOTES         top

       The process name used for matching is limited to the 15 characters
       present in the output of /proc/pid/stat.  Use the -f option to match
       against the complete command line, /proc/pid/cmdline.

       The running pgrep or pkill process will never report itself as a

BUGS         top

       The options -n and -o and -v can not be combined.  Let me know if you
       need to do this.

       Defunct processes are reported.

SEE ALSO         top

       ps(1), regex(7), signal(7), sigqueue(3), killall(1), skill(1),
       kill(1), kill(2)

AUTHOR         top

       Kjetil Torgrim Homme ⟨⟩

REPORTING BUGS         top

       Please send bug reports to ⟨⟩

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the procps-ng (/proc filesystem utilities)
       project.  Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for
       this manual page, see
       This page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2020-09-18.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the repos‐
       itory was 2020-09-16.)  If you discover any rendering problems in
       this HTML version of the page, or you believe there is a better or
       more up-to-date source for the page, or you have corrections or
       improvements to the information in this COLOPHON (which is not part
       of the original manual page), send a mail to

procps-ng                        2020-06-04                         PGREP(1)

Pages that refer to this page: killall(1)pidof(1)pmap(1)procps(1)ps(1)pslog(1)pwdx(1)