screen(1) — Linux manual page


SCREEN(1)                General Commands Manual               SCREEN(1)

NAME         top

       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation

SYNOPSIS         top

       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a
       physical terminal between several processes (typically
       interactive shells).  Each virtual terminal provides the
       functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, several
       control functions from the ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO
       2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for multiple
       character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each
       virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows
       moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in
       it (or the specified command) and then gets out of your way so
       that you can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any
       time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other
       programs in them (including more shells), kill existing windows,
       view a list of windows, turn output logging on and off, copy-and-
       paste text between windows, view the scrollback history, switch
       between windows in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run
       their programs completely independent of each other. Programs
       continue to run when their window is currently not visible and
       even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills
       the window that contained it.  If this window was in the
       foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if none
       are left, screen exits. Shells usually distinguish between
       running as login-shell or sub-shell.  Screen runs them as sub-
       shells, unless told otherwise (See "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything you type is sent to the program running in the current
       window.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is
       used to initiate a command to the window manager.  By default,
       each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now
       on), and is followed by one other keystroke.  The command
       character and all the key bindings can be fully customized to be
       anything you like, though they are always two characters in

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control,
       although this notation is used in this manual for readability.
       Please use the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-a") as
       arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen
       will also print out control characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This
       creates a new window running a shell and switches to that window
       immediately, regardless of the state of the process running in
       the current window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with
       a custom command in it by first binding the command to a
       keystroke (in your .screenrc file or at the "C-a :" command line)
       and then using it just like the "C-a c" command.  In addition,
       new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This
       will not run another copy of screen, but will instead supply the
       command name and its arguments to the window manager (specified
       in the $STY environment variable) who will use it to create the
       new window.  The above example would start the emacs editor
       (editing prog.c) and switch to its window. - Note that you cannot
       transport environment variables from the invoking shell to the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the
       parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If "/etc/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will
       be written to this file for each window, and removed when the
       window is terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",
       "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs
       that use the utmp file to determine who you are. As long as
       screen is active on your terminal, the terminal's own record is
       removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".


       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have
       correctly selected your terminal type, just as you would for any
       other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using tset
       for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing a lot
       more reading, you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".
       Typing these two characters will display a list of the available
       screen commands and their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed
       in the section "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section
       "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't
       allow the last position on the screen to be updated without
       scrolling the screen) consider using a version of your terminal's
       termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure
       an accurate and optimal update of the screen in all
       circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic" margins
       (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is
       a "true" auto-margin terminal screen will be content to use it,
       but updating a character put into the last position on the screen
       may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is
       moved into a safe position in some other way. This delay can be
       shortened by using a terminal with insert-character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in
            each window's termcap, even if screen must redraw parts of
            the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the current
            terminal.  By default, screen tries to restore its old
            window sizes when attaching to resizable terminals (those
            with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from
            "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D []
            does not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running
            screen session. It has the same effect as typing "C-a d"
            from screen's controlling terminal. -D is the equivalent to
            the power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this
            option is ignored. In combination with the -r/-R option more
            powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create
               it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it.
               Use the first session if more than one session is

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout
               remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session
               is running, then reattach. If necessary detach and logout
               remotely first.  If it was not running create it and
               notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status of your
            sessions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the character
            generating a literal command character to y (when typed
            after the command character).  The default is "C-a" and `a',
            which can be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen
            session, this option sets the default command character. In
            a multiuser session all users added will start off with this
            command character. But when attaching to an already running
            session, this option changes only the command character of
            the attaching user.  This option is equivalent to either the
            commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".
            This can also be defined through the "defflow" .screenrc

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the
            display immediately when flow-control is on.  See the
            "defflow" .screenrc command for details.  The use of this
            option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /etc/utmp updating).  This
            can also be defined through the "deflogin" .screenrc

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but prints a list of
            strings identifying your screen sessions.  Sessions marked
            `detached' can be resumed with "screen -r". Those marked
            `attached' are running and have a controlling terminal. If
            the session runs in multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'.
            Sessions marked as `unreachable' either live on a different
            host or are `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered
            dead, when its name matches either the name of the local
            host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
            for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions marked
            as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and removed.  Ask
            your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove
            sessions with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the

       -Logfile file
            By default logfile name is "screenlog.0". You can set new
            logfile name with the "-Logfile" option.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With
            "screen -m" creation of a new session is enforced,
            regardless whether screen is called from within another
            screen session or not. This flag has a special meaning in
            connection with the `-d' option:

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new
               session but doesn't attach to it. This is useful for
               system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't
               fork a new process. The command exits if the session

       -O   selects an optimal output mode for your terminal rather than
            true VT100 emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals
            without `LP').  This can also be set in your .screenrc by
            specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect a window. This is useful when you want to reattach
            to a specific window or you want to send a command via the
            "-X" option to a specific window. As with screen's select
            command, "-" selects the blank window. As a special case for
            reattach, "=" brings up the windowlist on the blank window,
            while a "+" will create a new window. The command will not
            be executed if the specified window could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with
            "-ls" the exit value is as follows: 9 indicates a directory
            without sessions. 10 indicates a directory with running but
            not attachable sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more)
            usable sessions.  In combination with "-r" the exit value is
            as follows: 10 indicates that there is no session to resume.
            12 (or more) indicates that there are 2 (or more) sessions
            to resume and you should specify which one to choose.  In
            all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some commands now can be queried from a remote session using
            this flag, e.g. "screen -Q windows". The commands will send
            the response to the stdout of the querying process. If there
            was an error in the command, then the querying process will
            exit with a non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except
            combinations with -d/-D) may be specified, though an
            optional prefix of [pid.] may be needed to
            distinguish between multiple detached screen sessions.  The
            second form is used to connect to another user's screen
            session which runs in multiuser mode. This indicates that
            screen should look for sessions in another user's directory.
            This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes screen only when it's unambiguous which one to
            attach, usually when only one screen is detached. Otherwise
            lists available sessions.  -RR attempts to resume the first
            detached screen session it finds.  If successful, all other
            command-line options are ignored.  If no detached session
            exists, starts a new session using the specified options,
            just as if -R had not been specified. The option is set by
            default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen
            uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D
            option see there.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to the program specified, instead of
            the value in the environment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh"
            if not defined).  This can also be defined through the
            "shell" .screenrc command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to
            specify a meaningful name for the session. This name
            identifies the session for "screen -list" and "screen -r"
            actions. It substitutes the default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified
            program.  See also the "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using the specified term
            as opposed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your
            terminal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It
            also sets the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed
            sessions instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable
            session is considered dead, when its name matches either the
            name of the local host, or the explicitly given parameter,
            if any.  See the -r flag for a description how to construct

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display
            mode).  Screen refuses to attach from within itself.  But
            when cascading multiple screens, loops are not detected;
            take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You
            may use the -S option to specify the screen session if you
            have several screen sessions running. You can use the -d or
            -r option to tell screen to look only for attached or
            detached screen sessions. Note that this command doesn't
            work if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed by
       one other character.  For your convenience, all commands that are
       bound to lower-case letters are also bound to their control
       character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see
       below), thus, "C-a c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create
       a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION" for a description of the

       The following table shows the default key bindings. The trailing
       commas in boxes with multiple keystroke entries are separators,
       not part of the bindings.
       C-a '              (select)          Prompt for a
                                            window name or
                                            number to switch
       C-a "              (windowlist -b)   Present a list of
                                            all windows for
       C-a digit          (select 0-9)      Switch to window
                                            number 0 - 9
       C-a -              (select -)        Switch to window
                                            number 0 - 9, or
                                            to the blank
       C-a tab            (focus)           Switch the input
                                            focus to the next
                                            region.  See also
                                            split, remove,
       C-a C-a            (other)           Toggle to the
                                            window displayed
                                            previously.  Note
                                            that this binding
                                            defaults to the
                                            command character
                                            typed twice,
                                            unless overridden.
                                            For instance, if
                                            you use the option
                                            "-e]x", this
                                            command becomes
       C-a a              (meta)            Send the command
                                            character (C-a) to
                                            window. See escape
       C-a A              (title)           Allow the user to
                                            enter a name for
                                            the current
       C-a b,             (break)           Send a break to
       C-a C-b                              window.
       C-a B              (pow_break)       Reopen the
                                            terminal line and
                                            send a break.
       C-a c,             (screen)          Create a new
       C-a C-c                              window with a
                                            shell and switch
                                            to that window.
       C-a C              (clear)           Clear the screen.
       C-a d,             (detach)          Detach screen from
       C-a C-d                              this terminal.
       C-a D D            (pow_detach)      Detach and logout.
       C-a f,             (flow)            Toggle flow on,
       C-a C-f                              off or auto.
       C-a F              (fit)             Resize the window
                                            to the current
                                            region size.
       C-a C-g            (vbell)           Toggles screen's
                                            visual bell mode.
       C-a h              (hardcopy)        Write a hardcopy
                                            of the current
                                            window to the file
       C-a H              (log)             Begins/ends
                                            logging of the
                                            current window to
                                            the file
       C-a i,             (info)            Show info about
       C-a C-i                              this window.
       C-a k,             (kill)            Destroy current
       C-a C-k                              window.
       C-a l,             (redisplay)       Fully refresh
       C-a C-l                              current window.
       C-a L              (login)           Toggle this
                                            windows login
                                            slot. Available
                                            only if screen is
                                            configured to
                                            update the utmp
       C-a m,             (lastmsg)         Repeat the last
       C-a C-m                              message displayed
                                            in the message
       C-a M              (monitor)         Toggles monitoring
                                            of the current
       C-a space,         (next)            Switch to the next
       C-a n,                               window.
       C-a C-n
       C-a N              (number)          Show the number
                                            (and title) of the
                                            current window.
       C-a backspace,     (prev)            Switch to the
       C-a C-h,                             previous window
       C-a p,                               (opposite of C-a
       C-a C-p                              n).
       C-a q,             (xon)             Send a control-q
       C-a C-q                              to the current
       C-a Q              (only)            Delete all regions
                                            but the current
                                            one.  See also
                                            split, remove,
       C-a r,             (wrap)            Toggle the current
       C-a C-r                              window's line-wrap
                                            setting (turn the
                                            current window's
                                            automatic margins
                                            on and off).
       C-a s,             (xoff)            Send a control-s
       C-a C-s;                             to the current
       C-a S              (split)           Split the current
                                            horizontally into
                                            two new ones.  See
                                            also only, remove,
       C-a t,             (time)            Show system
       C-a C-t                              information.
       C-a u,             (parent)          Switch to the
       C-a C-u                              parent window.
       C-a v              (version)         Display the
                                            version and
                                            compilation date.
       C-a C-v            (digraph)         Enter digraph.
       C-a w,             (windows)         Show a list of
       C-a C-w                              window.
       C-a W              (width)           Toggle 80/132
       C-a x or C-a C-x   (lockscreen)      Lock this
       C-a X              (remove)          Kill the current
                                            region.  See also
                                            split, only,
       C-a z,             (suspend)         Suspend screen.
       C-a C-z                              Your system must
                                            support BSD-style
       C-a Z              (reset)           Reset the virtual
                                            terminal to its
                                            "power-on" values.
       C-a .              (dumptermcap)     Write out a
                                            ".termcap" file.
       C-a ?              (help)            Show key bindings.
       C-a \              (quit)            Kill all windows
                                            and terminate
       C-a :              (colon)           Enter command line
       C-a [,             (copy)            Enter
       C-a C-[,                             copy/scrollback
       C-a esc                              mode.
       C-a C-],           (paste .)         Write the contents
       C-a ]                                of the paste
                                            buffer to the
                                            stdin queue of the
                                            current window.
       C-a {,             (history)         Copy and paste a
       C-a }                                previous (command)
       C-a >              (writebuf)        Write paste buffer
                                            to a file.
       C-a <              (readbuf)         Reads the screen-
                                            exchange file into
                                            the paste buffer.
       C-a =              (removebuf)       Removes the file
                                            used by C-a < and
                                            C-a >.
       C-a ,              (license)         Shows where screen
                                            comes from, where
                                            it went to and why
                                            you can use it.
       C-a _              (silence)         Start/stop
                                            monitoring the
                                            current window for
       C-a |              (split -v)        Split the current
                                            region vertically
                                            into two new ones.
       C-a *              (displays)        Show a listing of
                                            all currently
                                            attached displays.


       The "socket directory" defaults either to $HOME/.screen or simply
       to /tmp/screens or preferably to /usr/local/screens chosen at
       compile-time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then the
       administrator should compile screen with an adequate (not NFS
       mounted) socket directory. If screen is not running setuid-root,
       the user can specify any mode 700 directory in the environment
       variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from
       the files "/usr/local/etc/screenrc" and ".screenrc" in the user's
       home directory. These are the "programmer's defaults" that can be
       overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file
       screen searches for the environment variable $SYSTEM_SCREENRC
       (this override feature may be disabled at compile-time). The user
       specific screenrc file is searched in $SCREENRC, then
       $HOME/.screenrc.  The command line option -c takes precedence
       over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are used to set options, bind functions
       to keys, and to automatically establish one or more windows at
       the beginning of your screen session.  Commands are listed one
       per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments
       are separated by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single
       or double quotes.  A `#' turns the rest of the line into a
       comment, except in quotes.  Unintelligible lines are warned about
       and ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment
       variables. The syntax is the shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note
       that this causes incompatibility with previous screen versions,
       as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-
       quotes is also protected from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your screen
       distribution: "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain
       a number of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization can also be done 'on-line'. To enter the command
       mode type `C-a :'. Note that commands starting with "def" change
       default values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this screen session. Usernames can
       be one user or a comma separated list of users. This command
       enables to attach to the screen session and performs the
       equivalent of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a
       user with restricted access, use the `aclchg' command below.  If
       an optional second parameter is supplied, it should be a crypted
       password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a synonym to
       `acladd'.  Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users.
       Permission bits are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing
       `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter is
       a comma separated list of commands and/or windows (specified
       either by number or title). The special list `#' refers to all
       windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames consists of a single
       `*', all known users are affected.

       A command can be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.
       The user can type input to a window when he has its `w' bit set
       and no other user obtains a writelock for this window.  Other
       bits are currently ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from
       another user in window 2: `aclchg username -w+w 2'.  To allow
       read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w "#"'. As
       soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the
       session and (per default) has full permissions for all command
       and windows. Execution permission for the acl commands, `at' and
       others should also be removed or the user may be able to regain
       write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot
       be changed (see the "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to
       `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently
       attached, all the user's displays are detached from the session.
       He cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights. The name
       of the group is the username of the group leader. Each member of
       the group inherits the permissions that are granted to the group
       leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another
       check is made for the group leader.  A user is removed from all
       groups the special value "none" is used for groupname.  If the
       second parameter is omitted all groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will
       be created by the caller of the command.  Users may be no, one or
       a comma separated list of known usernames. If no users are
       specified, a list of all currently known users is assumed.  Bits
       is any combination of access control bits allowed defined with
       the "aclchg" command. The special username "?" predefines the
       access that not yet known users will be granted to any window
       initially.  The special username "??" predefines the access that
       not yet known users are granted to any command.  Rights of the
       special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su" command).
       `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being
       monitored, screen displays a notification in the message line.
       The notification message can be re-defined by means of the
       "activity" command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is
       replaced by the number of the window in which activity has
       occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).
       The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can
       be altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window
       change.  This affects all windows and is useful for slow terminal
       lines. The previous setting of full/partial refresh for each
       window is restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag
       that immediately takes effect on all windows overriding the
       "partial" settings. It does not change the default redraw
       behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual
       terminals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows as if it had been
       entered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window' or
       `current display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter
       describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed
       multiple times. If the first parameter is of the form
       `identifier*' then identifier is matched against user names.  The
       command is executed once for each display of the selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%'
       identifier is matched against displays. Displays are named after
       the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty' may be
       omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing
       appended it is matched against window numbers and titles.
       Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character
       selects all users, displays or windows because a prefix-match is
       performed. Note that on the affected display(s) a short message
       will describe what happened. Permission is checked for initiator
       of the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected
       display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment
       introducer when it is preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped
       by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at" command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at
       least once per window. Commands that change the internal
       arrangement of windows (like "other") may be called again. In
       shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached
       display. Beware, when issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some
       commands (e.g. "process") require that a display is associated
       with the target windows.  These commands may not work correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the
       color of the text. If the attribute attrib is in use, the
       specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no
       modifier is given, the current one is deleted. See the "STRING
       ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifier. Screen
       understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands for high-intensity
       foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which
       saves all your running programs until they are resumed with a
       screen -r command.  When turned off, a hangup signal will
       terminate screen and all the processes it contains. Autodetach is
       on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output
       that has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...

       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The
       output of such a command is used for substitution of the "%`"
       string escape. The specified lifespan is the number of seconds
       the output is considered valid. After this time, the command is
       run again if a corresponding string escape is encountered.  The
       autorefresh parameter triggers an automatic refresh for caption
       and hardstatus strings after the specified number of seconds.
       Only the last line of output is used for substitution.

       If both the lifespan and the autorefresh parameters are zero, the
       backtick program is expected to stay in the background and
       generate output once in a while.  In this case, the command is
       executed right away and screen stores the last line of output. If
       a new line gets printed screen will automatically refresh the
       hardstatus or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with
       the numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all
       characters cleared by an erase/insert/scroll/clear operation will
       be displayed in the current background color. Otherwise the
       default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen
       displays a notification in the message line.  The notification
       message can be re-defined by this command.  Each occurrence of
       `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a
       bell has been sent, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by
       the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

                          'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to
       suppress output of a message line (bell_msg "").  Without
       parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands
       provided by screen are bound to one or more keys as indicated in
       the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to create a
       new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be
       used to redefine the key bindings and to define new bindings.
       The key argument is either a single character, a two-character
       sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed
       by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or a backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or
       "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no
       further argument is given, any previously established binding for
       this key is removed.  The command argument can be any command
       listed in this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is
       bound for the specified class. Use the "command" command to
       activate a class. Command classes can be used to create multiple
       command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command that displays a list of
       windows (so that the command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would
       also be available as "C-a space"). The next three lines remove
       the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is
       then bound to the kill command. Then it binds "C-f" to the
       command "create a window with a TELNET connection to foobar", and
       bind "escape" to the command that creates an non-login window
       with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a
       scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every
       entry in one of the tables tells screen how to react if a certain
       sequence of characters is encountered. There are three tables:
       one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for
       the default actions used for terminal emulation and one for
       screen's copy mode to do cursor movement. See section "INPUT
       TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.

       If the -d option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m
       changes the copy mode table and with neither option the user
       table is selected.  The argument string is the sequence of
       characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a
       fixed string or a termcap keyboard capability name (selectable
       with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if
       application mode is turned on (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys
       have two entries in the translation table. You can select the
       application mode entry by specifying the -a option.

       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One
       cannot turn off the timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of
       args.  If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d

       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode
       entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1

       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo

       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is
       disabled so that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault

       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character for key-bindings.
       If you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the
       word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to insert a "^T" you
       have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command

       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides


       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.
       For non-Posix systems the time interval may be rounded up to full
       seconds.  Most useful if a character device is attached to the
       window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW
       TYPES"). The maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15


       Activate the screen blanker. First the screen is cleared. If no
       blanker program is defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise,
       the program is started and it's output is written to the screen.
       The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read
       key is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an
       empty argument is given. Shows the currently set blanker program
       if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal
       for terminal devices. This command should affect the current
       window only.  But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype".
       This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no
       parameter displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste
       buffer.  If the optional argument to the "bufferfile" command is
       omitted, the default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is
       reactivated.  The following example will paste the system's
       password file into the screen window (using the paste buffer,
       where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the
       input characters between 128 and 159 as control functions.  Such
       an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed by the
       corresponding 7-bit code. The default setting is to process c1
       codes and can be changed with the "defc1" command.  Users with
       fonts that have usable characters in the c1 positions may want to
       turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the window captions.
       Normally a caption is only used if more than one window is shown
       on the display (split screen mode). But if the type is set to
       always screen shows a caption even if only one window is
       displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can
       use all escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a
       default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional

       You can have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom of
       the window.  The default is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset
       mapping.  The first four character of set are treated as charset
       designators while the fifth and sixth character must be in range
       '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a
       '.' may be used to indicate that the corresponding
       charset/mapping should not be changed (set is padded to six
       characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have
       "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a "encoding" command is
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory
       or, if called without an argument, to your home directory (the
       value of the environment variable $HOME).  All windows that are
       created by means of the "screen" command from within ".screenrc"
       or by means of "C-a : screen ..." or "C-a c" use this as their
       default directory.  Without a chdir command, this would be the
       directory from which screen was invoked.

       Hardcopy and log files are always written to the window's default
       directory, not the current directory of the process running in
       the window.  You can use this command multiple times in your
       .screenrc to start various windows in different default
       directories, but the last chdir value will affect all the windows
       you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-
       fly modification of key bindings, specific window creation and
       changing settings. Note that the "set" keyword no longer exists!
       Usually commands affect the current window rather than default
       settings for future windows. Change defaults with commands
       starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may
       regard "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as typing the screen escape
       character (^A). It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If
       the "-c" option is given, select the specified command class.
       See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or un-grabs the machines console output to a window.  Note:
       Only the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This
       command is only available if the machine supports the ioctl


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This allows you to copy text from the
       current window and its history into the paste buffer. In this
       mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       h, C-h,        move the cursor left.
       left arrow
       j, C-n,        move the cursor down.
       down arrow
       k, C-p,        move the cursor up.
       up arrow
       l ('el'),      move the cursor right.
       right arrow
       0 (zero) C-a   move to the leftmost column.
       + and -        positions one line up and down.
       H, M and L     move the cursor to the leftmost column of the
                      top, center or bottom line of the window.
       |              moves to the specified absolute column.
       g or home      moves to the beginning of the buffer.
       G or end       moves to the specified absolute line (default:
                      end of buffer).
       %              jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
       ^ or $         move to the leftmost column, to the first or
                      last non-whitespace character on the line.
       w, b, and e    move the cursor word by word.
       B, E           move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
       f/F, t/T       move the cursor forward/backward to the next
                      occurence of the target. (eg, '3fy' will move
                      the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)
       ; and ,        Repeat the last f/F/t/T command in the
                      same/opposite direction.
       C-e and C-y    scroll the display up/down by one line while
                      preserving the cursor position.
       C-u and C-d    scroll the display up/down by the specified
                      amount of lines while preserving the cursor
                      position. (Default: half screen-full).
       C-b and C-f    scroll the display up/down a full screen.

       Note: Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc
       command.  (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple
       method for a full emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-
       character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text
       between these marks will be highlighted. Press:

              space or enter to set the first or second mark
              respectively. If mousetrack is set to `on', marks can also
              be set using left mouse click.

              Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start
              of line.

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number
       by pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the
       paste buffer.

       The folllowing search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi
       does not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen
       does. Press: c or C to set the left or right margin respectively.
       If no repeat count is given, both default to the current cursor

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE".

       This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20
       columns left, marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets the
       left column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right column, and
       then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:

              "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a
       newline character (012), lines glued seamless, lines separated by
       a single whitespace and comma separated lines. Note that you can
       prepend the newline character with a carriage return character,
       by issuing a "crlf on".

       v or V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it toggles
       the left margin between column 9 and 1. Press

       a before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the
       contents of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is
       appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste
       buffer to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per
       default) once copy-mode is finished.

       This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer
       to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position.
       You can use this to adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a ['
       command. If it is set to `on', lines will be separated by the two
       character sequence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default) only `LF' is
       used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default setting for
       new displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you
       can use the special `AN' terminal capability if you want to have
       a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal
       for terminal devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and
       TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session
       for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to
       generate long breaks.  Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not
       produce long breaks with spikes (e.g. 4 per second). This is not
       only system-dependent, this also differs between serial board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the
       current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Shows current default if called without

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should
       change window title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also
       "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the
       "escape" except that it is useful multiuser sessions only. In a
       multiuser session "escape" changes the command character of the
       calling user, where "defescape" changes the default command
       characters for users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same as the flow command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying
       "defflow auto interrupt" is the same as the command-line options
       -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is set to
       status.  This command is useful to make the hardstatus of every
       window display the window number or title or the like.  Status
       may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but
       the directive escape character is '^E' (octal 005) instead of
       '%'.  This was done to make a misinterpretation of program
       generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If the parameter status
       is omitted, the current default string is displayed.  Per default
       the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken
       from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. This is initialized with `on' as distributed

       defmode mode

       The mode of each newly allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode
       is an octal number.  When no "defmode" command is given, mode
       0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting
       for new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default setting for
       displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for
       new displays is changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that
       you can use the special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to
       have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting
       for new windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 milliseconds,
       meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `on' if screen was started
       with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled
       with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means of "C-a : wrap

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and
       put it into the background).  This returns you to the shell where
       you invoked screen.  A detached screen can be resumed by invoking
       screen with the -r option (see also section "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS"). The -h option tells screen to immediately close the
       connection to the terminal ("hangup").


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want
       to know why features like color or the alternate charset don't


       Shows a tabular listing of all currently connected user front-
       ends (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser sessions.
       The following keys can be used in displays list:

       k, C-p, or up           Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down         Move down one line.
       C-a or home             Move to the first line.
       C-e or end              Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d              Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f              Move one full page up or down.
       mouseclick              Move to the selected line.
                               Available when "mousetrack" is
                               set to on.
       space                   Refresh the list
       d                       Detach that display
       D                       Power detach that display
       C-g, enter, or escape   Exit the list

       The following is an example of what "displays" could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

              (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

              (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

              (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

              (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode.  The
              available modes are "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

              (F) Number of the window

              (G) Name/title of window

              (H) Whether the window is shared

              (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters.
              │              Window permissions indicators              │
              │  1st character   │  2nd character   │   3rd character   │
              │ -   │no read     │ -   │no write    │ -   │no execute   │
              │ r   │read        │ w   │write       │ x   │execute      │
              │     │            │ W   │own wlock   │     │             │
              │ Indicators of permissions suppressed by a foreign wlock │
              │ R   │read only   │ .   │no write    │     │             │

              "displays" needs a region size of at least 10 characters
              wide and 5 characters high in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next
       two characters typed are looked up in a builtin table and the
       resulting character is inserted in the input stream. For example,
       if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the
       first character entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the
       following characters (up to three) as an octal number instead.
       The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one
       can create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K
       digraph '"'" enables the user to generate an a-umlaut by typing
       CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified, a new
       digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph is
       unset if a zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for
       the currently active window to the file ".termcap" in the user's
       "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores its sockets.
       See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical
       to the value of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is set up
       by screen for each window. For terminfo based systems you will
       need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile the entry
       with tic.

       dynamictitle on|off

       Change behaviour for windows regarding if screen should change
       window title when seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES
       (naming windows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a
       'message of the day'. Typically installed in a global
       /local/etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used to suppress the
       line feed.  See also "sleep".  Echo is also useful for online
       checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument
       sets the encoding of the current window. Each window can emulate
       a different encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites
       the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed
       as screen uses the locale setting to detect the encoding.  There
       is also a way to select a terminal encoding depending on the
       terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK,
       KOI8-R, KOI8-U, CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4,
       ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6, ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9,
       ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a
       new window.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating a
       literal command character (by triggering the "meta" command) to y
       (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is either a single
       character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-
       x"), a backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the
       ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed by a second
       character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1[command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified by an executable path newcommand
       and its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of
       data between newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr, the process
       originally started in the window (let us call it "application-
       process") and screen itself (window) is controlled by the file
       descriptor pattern fdpat.  This pattern is basically a three
       character sequence representing stdin, stdout and stderr of
       newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.  An
       exclamation mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be connected
       to the application-process. A colon (:) combines both.  User
       input will go to newcommand unless newcommand receives the
       application-process' output (fdpats first character is `!' or
       `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is added (as a fourth character) to the
       end of fdpat.

       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments of the
       currently running subprocess in this window. Only one subprocess
       a time can be running in each window.

       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect it
       instead of the windows process.

       Refer to the postscript file `doc/' for a confusing
       illustration of all 21 possible combinations. Each drawing shows
       the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of
       newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the
       application-process on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the
       secondary pty that now has screen at its master side.

       Abbreviations: Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and
       the command can be omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting
       only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the
       pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always
       be replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh

              exec /bin/sh


                     Creates another shell in the same window, while the
                     original shell is still running. Output of both
                     shells is displayed and user input is sent to the
                     new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200

              exec ! stty 19200

              !!stty 19200

                     Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty
                     command operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less


                     This adds a pager to the window output. The special
                     character `|' is needed to give the user control
                     over the pager although it gets its input from the
                     window's process. This works, because less listens
                     on stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect
                     without the `|') when its stdin is not a tty.  Less
                     versions newer than 177 fail miserably here; good
                     old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                     Sends window output to both, the user and the sed
                     command. The sed inserts an additional bell
                     character (oct. 007) to the window output seen by
                     screen.  This will cause "Bell in window x"
                     messages, whenever the string "Error" appears in
                     the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This
       command is needed because screen doesn't adapt the window size
       automatically if the window is displayed more than once.

       flow   [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters
       it cycles the current window's flow-control setting from
       "automatic" to "on" to "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-
       CONTROL" later on in this document for full details and note,
       that this is subject to change in future releases.  Default is
       set by `defflow'.

       focus [next|prev|up|down|left|right|top|bottom]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic
       way so that the top left region is selected after the bottom
       right one. If no option is given it defaults to `next'. The next
       region to be selected is determined by how the regions are
       layered.  Normally, the next region in the same layer would be
       selected.  However, if that next region contains one or more
       layers, the first region in the highest layer is selected first.
       If you are at the last region of the current layer, `next' will
       move the focus to the next region in the lower layer (if there is
       a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in the opposite order. See "split"
       for more information about layers.

       The rest of the options (`up', `down', `left', `right', `top',
       and `bottom') are more indifferent to layers. The option `up'
       will move the focus upward to the region that is touching the
       upper left corner of the current region.  `Down' will move
       downward to the region that is touching the lower left corner of
       the current region. The option `left' will move the focus
       leftward to the region that is touching the upper left corner of
       the current region, while `right' will move rightward to the
       region that is touching the upper right corner of the current
       region. Moving left from a left most region or moving right from
       a right most region will result in no action.

       The option `top' will move the focus to the very first region in
       the upper list corner of the screen, and `bottom' will move to
       the region in the bottom right corner of the screen. Moving up
       from a top most region or moving down from a bottom most region
       will result in no action.

       Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
           bind h focus left
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind l focus right
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This forces any currently selected region to be automatically
       resized at least a certain width and height. All other
       surrounding regions will be resized in order to accommodate.
       This constraint follows everytime the "focus" command is used.
       The "resize" command can be used to increase either dimension of
       a region, but never below what is set with "focusminsize". The
       underscore `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and height
       of `0 0' (zero zero) will undo any constraints and allow for
       manual resizing.  Without any parameters, the minimum width and
       height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input
       character with the 8th bit set, it will use the charset stored in
       the GR slot and print the character with the 8th bit stripped.
       The default (see also "defgr") is not to process GR switching
       because otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change or show the group the current window belongs to. Windows
       can be moved around between different groups by specifying the
       name of the destination group. Without specifying a group, the
       title of the current group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file, or, if
       no filename is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory,
       where n is the number of the current window.  This either appends
       or overwrites the file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h
       is specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files
       created by the command "C-a h", otherwise these files are
       overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If
       unset, hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working

       hardstatus [on|off]

       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore[string]

       hardstatus string[string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's
       hardstatus line. The first form toggles whether screen will use
       the hardware status line to display messages. If the flag is set
       to `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at
       the display line. The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't
       have a hardstatus line (i.e. the termcap/terminfo capabilities
       "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are not set).  When
       "firstline/lastline" is used, screen will reserve the first/last
       line of the display for the hardstatus. "message" uses screen's
       message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never to display the
       hardstatus.  If you prepend the word "always" to the type (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the terminal
       supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.
       '%h' is used as default string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of
       the current window (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G" or
       "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.  You can customize this to any
       string you like including the escapes from the "STRING ESCAPES"
       chapter. If you leave out the argument string, the current string
       is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as
       additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no
       argument is given it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You
       can also specify a width if you want to change both values.  The
       -w option tells screen to leave the display size unchanged and
       just set the window size, -d vice versa.


       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen showing you
       all the key bindings.  The first pages list all the internal
       commands followed by their current bindings.  Subsequent pages
       will display the custom commands, one command per key.  Press
       space when you're done reading each page, or return to exit
       early.  All other characters are ignored. If the "-c" option is
       given, display all bound commands for the specified command
       class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to
       previous commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to
       repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive way of re-calling "the command that started ...": You
       just type the first letter of that command, then hit `C-a {' and
       screen tries to find a previous line that matches with the
       `prompt character' to the left of the cursor. This line is pasted
       into this window's input queue.  Thus you have a crude command
       history (made up by the visible window and its scrollback

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

       Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds
       inactivity is reached. This command will normally be the
       "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but it can be any
       screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is
       set. A timeout of zero (or the special timeout off) disables the
       timer.  If no arguments are given, the current settings are

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in searches. Default
       is `off'. Without any options, the state of ignorecase is


       Uses the message line to display some information about the
       current window: the cursor position in the form "(column,row)"
       starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width and height plus the
       size of the scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the
       current state of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this
       (See also section FLOW CONTROL):
       │ +flow    │ automatic flow control, currently on.                    │
       │ -flow    │ automatic flow control, currently off.                   │
       │ +(+)flow │ flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.     │
       │ -(+)flow │ flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control. │
       │ +(-)flow │ flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.  │
       │ -(-)flow │ flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.    │

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap'
       not) is also shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon'
       or `nored' are displayed when the window is in insert mode,
       origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging,
       activity monitoring or partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in
       square brackets the terminal character sets that are currently
       designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is in UTF-8
       mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are
       displayed at the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW

       If the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default
       state, the info line is started with a string identifying the
       current state.

       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.

       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.
       Otherwise the process (shell) running in the window receives a
       HANGUP condition, the window structure is removed and screen
       (your display) switches to another window.  When the last window
       is destroyed, screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the
       previously displayed window.

       Note: Emacs users should keep this command in mind, when killing
       a line.  It is recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape
       key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.  Useful
       if you're typing when a message appears, because  the message
       goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal has a
       hardware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and
       "msgminwait" for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region
       and be switched to the blank window. From here, you build the
       regions and the windows they show as you desire. The new layout
       will be numbered with the smallest available integer, starting
       with zero. You can optionally give a title to your new layout.
       Otherwise, it will have a default title of "layout". You can
       always change the title later by using the command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either
       the number or the title can be specified. Without either
       specification, screen will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be
       specified. Without either specification, screen will prompt and
       ask which screen is desired. To see which layouts are available,
       use the layout show command.

       layout show

       List on the message line the number(s) and title(s) of the
       available layout(s). The current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given
       will be used to name the layout. Without any options, the current
       title and number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout. An integer
       given will be used to number the layout. Without any options, the
       current number and title is displayed on the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach back to. The default
       is :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used
       layout just before detachment. By supplying a title, You can
       instruct screen to reattach to a particular layout regardless
       which one was used at the time of detachment. Without any
       options, the layout to reattach to will be shown in the message

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the current arrangement of regions. When used, screen
       will remember the arrangement of vertically and horizontally
       split regions. This arrangement is restored when a screen session
       is reattached or switched back from a different layout. If the
       session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrangements
       are lost. The layout dump command should help in this siutation.
       If a number or title is supplied, screen will remember the
       arrangement of that particular layout. Without any options,
       screen will remember the current layout.

       Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the layout
       autosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change or display the status of automatcally saving layouts. The
       default is on, meaning when screen is detached or changed to a
       different layout, the arrangement of regions and windows will be
       remembered at the time of change and restored upon return.  If
       autosave is set to off, that arrangement will only be restored to
       either to the last manual save, using layout save, or to when the
       layout was first created, to a single region with a single
       window. Without either an on or off, the current status is
       displayed on the message line.

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout.
       This is useful to recreate the order of your regions used in your
       current layout. Only the current layout is recorded. While the
       order of the regions are recorded, the sizes of those regions and
       which windows correspond to which regions are not. If no filename
       is specified, the default is layout-dump, saved in the directory
       that the screen process was started in. If the file already
       exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an example:

                   C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever screen is
       started without options, which should be often enough. See also
       the "startup_message" command.


       Lock this display.  Call a screenlock program (/local/bin/lck or
       /usr/bin/lock or a builtin if no other is available). Screen does
       not accept any command keys until this program terminates.
       Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the windows
       are in the `detached' state. The screenlock program may be
       changed through the environment variable $LOCKPRG (which must be
       set in the shell from which screen is started) and is executed
       with the user's uid and gid.

       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no
       password set on screen, the lock is void: One could easily re-
       attach from an unlocked shell. This feature should rather be
       called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a file
       "screenlog.n" in the window's default directory, where n is the
       number of the current window. This filename can be changed with
       the `logfile' command. If no parameter is given, the state of
       logging is toggled. The session log is appended to the previous
       contents of the file if it already exists. The current contents
       and the contents of the scrollback history are not included in
       the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename

       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is
       "screenlog.%n". The second form changes the number of seconds
       screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the file-
       system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the
       current window.  This controls if the window is `logged in'.
       When no parameter is given, the login state of the window is
       toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a
       `log in' and a `log out' key. E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind O
       login off' will map these keys to be C-a I and C-a O.  The
       default setting (in should be "on" for a screen that
       runs under suid-root.  Use the "deflogin" command to change the
       default login state for new windows. Both commands are only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]

       logtstamp after [secs]

       logtstamp string

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If
       time-stamps are turned "on", screen adds a string containing the
       current time to the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.
       When output continues and more than another two minutes have
       passed, a second time-stamp is added to document the restart of
       the output. You can change this timeout with the second form of
       the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-
       stamp string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by


       Tell screen that the next input character should only be looked
       up in the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a
       timeout of timeout ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout
       with no arguments shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history
       mode.  The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs which are
       separated by `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will change the
       keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill
       page).  This happens to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.
       The command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an
       emacs-style binding.  If your terminal sends characters, that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by
       binding these characters to do nothing.  The no-op character is
       `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not want to
       use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this
       example, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a
       single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect
       already existing windows. The number can be increased only when
       there are no existing windows.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity monitoring of windows.  When monitoring is
       turned on and an affected window is switched into the background,
       you will receive the activity notification message in the status
       line at the first sign of output and the window will also be
       marked with an `@' in the window-status display.  Monitoring is
       initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This command determines whether screen will watch for mouse
       clicks. When this command is enabled, regions that have been
       split in various ways can be selected by pointing to them with a
       mouse and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off, the
       current state is displayed. The default state is determined by
       the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is
       currently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not
       disturbed by other activity. The default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen
       operation is singleuser. In multiuser mode the commands `acladd',
       `aclchg', `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to enable (and
       disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are
       familiar with the game "nethack", you may enjoy the nethack-style
       messages which will often blur the facts a little, but are much
       funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be
       unclear as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with the
       NETHACK flag defined. The default setting is then determined by
       the presence of the environment variable $NETHACKOPTIONS and the
       file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly
       to cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that
       cease to accept output. This can happen if a user presses ^S or a
       TCP/modem connection gets cut but no hangup is received. If
       nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits until the
       display restarts to accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen
       waits until the timeout is reached (on is treated as 1s). If the
       display still doesn't receive characters, screen will consider it
       "blocked" and stop sending characters to it. If at some time it
       restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock the display
       and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change the current window's number. If the given number n is
       already used by another window, both windows exchange their
       numbers. If no argument is specified, the current window number
       (and title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the window's
       number by the relative amount specified.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified
       limit, no more data will be read from the windows. The default
       value is 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm), you can
       set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the
       current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed previously. If this window does no
       longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with
       redisplay) after switching to the current window. This command
       only affects the current window.  To immediately affect all
       windows use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.
       This default is fixed, as there is currently no defpartial

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen
       will ask for it, whenever someone attempts to resume a detached.
       This is useful if you have privileged programs running under
       screen and you want to protect your session from reattach
       attempts by another user masquerading as your uid (i.e. any
       superuser.)  If no crypted password is specified, screen prompts
       twice for typing a password and places its encryption in the
       paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to
       the stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is
       treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given the user is
       prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be
       filled with the copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other
       registers can be filled with the register, readreg and paste
       commands.  If paste is called with a second argument, the
       contents of the specified registers is pasted into the named
       destination register rather than the window. If '.' is used as
       the second argument, the displays paste buffer is the
       destination.  Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of
       resources: Whenever a second argument is specified no current
       window is needed. When the source specification only contains
       registers (not the paste buffer) then there need not be a current
       display (terminal attached), as the registers are a global
       resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The
       default is not to do so. This command is especially useful for
       multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP
       signal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will
       result in a logout, when screen was started from your login-

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach'
       was performed. It may be used as a replacement for a logout
       message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter, the
       current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command
       can be used repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal
       capabilities "po/pf" if it detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5
       i, but pipe the output into cmd.  This should normally be a
       command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without
       a command displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \
       ends printing and closes the pipe.

       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write
       access to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input
       queue. If no argument is given you are prompted for a register
       name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed in from the
       user's keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple
       actions to a single key.


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style
       terminals the keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.  This makes the
       default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type C-a C-4 when
       selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind
       '^\'") to remove a key binding.

       readbuf [encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.
       You can tell screen the encoding of the file via the -e option.
       If no file is specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.
       See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with
       zero or one arguments it duplicates the paste buffer contents
       into the register specified or entered at the prompt. With two
       arguments it reads the contents of the named file into the
       register, just as readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the
       paste buffer.  You can tell screen the encoding of the file via
       the -e option.  The following example will paste the system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a
       copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when
       in partial redraw mode.

       register [-eencoding]key-string

       Save the specified string to the register key.  The encoding of
       the string can be specified via the -e option.  See also the
       "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf"
       and "readbuf".

       rendition bell | monitor | silence | so  attr  [ color ]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that have
       monitor or bell flags set in caption or hardstatus or windowlist.
       See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifiers.
       The default for monitor is currently "=b " (bold, active colors),
       for bell "=ub " (underline, bold and active colors), and "=u "
       for silence.


       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when
       strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics character set)
       are left over from an application.

       resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or
       added to the surrounding regions depending on the order of the
       splits.  The available options for resizing are `-h'(horizontal),
       `-v'(vertical), `-b'(both), `-l'(local to layer), and
       `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal resizes will add or remove width
       to a region, vertical will add or remove height, and both will
       add or remove size from both dimensions. Local and perpendicular
       are similar to horizontal and vertical, but they take in account
       of how a region was split.  If a region's last split was
       horizontal, a local resize will work like a vertical resize. If a
       region's last split was vertical, a local resize will work like a
       horizontal resize. Perpendicular resizes work in opposite of
       local resizes. If no option is specified, local is the default.

       The amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed a couple of
       different ways. By specifying a number n by itself will resize
       the region by that absolute amount. You can specify a relative
       amount by prefixing a plus `+' or minus `-' to the amount, such
       as adding +n lines or removing -n lines. Resizing can also be
       expressed as an absolute or relative percentage by postfixing a
       percent sign `%'. Using zero `0' is a synonym for `min' and using
       an underscore `_' is a synonym for `max'.

       Some examples are:

       resize +N
              increase current region by N

       resize -N
              decrease current region by N

       resize  N
              set current region to N

       resize 20%
              set current region to 20% of original size

       resize +20%
              increase current region by 20%

       resize -b =
              make all windows equally

       resize  max
              maximize current region

       resize  min
              minimize current region

       Without any arguments, screen will prompt for how you would like
       to resize the current region.

       See "focusminsize" if you want to restrict the minimun size a
       region can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and
       -fa), title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) ,
       terminal type option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a)
       and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each
       command.  The option (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.
       The option (-L) turns output logging on for this window.  If an
       optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window
       number n is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this
       number is already in-use, the next available number).  If a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments) is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is
       created.  If //group is supplied, a container-type window is
       created in which other windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a
       TELNET connection to the machine foobar (with no flow-control
       using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write a logfile
       ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike
       previous versions of screen no additional default window is
       created when "screen" commands are included in your ".screenrc"
       file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to
       the last window specified in your .screenrc file or, if none,
       opens a default window #0.

       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See
       also chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to
       num lines. The default scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the
       "defscrollback" command and use "info" to view the current
       setting. To access and use the contents in the scrollback buffer,
       use the "copy" command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a
       prefix of a window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window
       number.  The parameter is optional and if omitted, you get
       prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established,
       the first available number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the
       first window can be activated by "select 0".  The number of
       windows is limited at compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration
       parameter (which defaults to 40).  There are two special
       WindowIDs, "-" selects the internal blank window and "." selects
       the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that for "screen -list" the
       name shows up with the process-id prepended. If the argument
       "name" is omitted, the name of this session is displayed.
       Caution: The $STY environment variables will still reflect the
       old name in pre-existing shells. This may result in confusion.
       Use of this command is generally discouraged. Use the "-S"
       command-line option if you want to name a new session.  The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is
       specified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.  If no
       parameters are specified, the user will be prompted for both
       variable and value. The environment is inherited by all
       subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for
       the windows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore
       and all windows will be in the same process group as the screen
       backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.
       The default is on, of course. This command is probably useful
       only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides
       the value of the environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if
       you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute
       the program specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a
       '-' character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.
       Typical shells do only minimal initialization when not started as
       a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read your "~/.bashrc" unless
       it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the C-A
       C-c command.  For details about what a title is, see the
       discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on
       and an affected window is switched into the background, you will
       receive the silence notification message in the status line after
       a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout
       can be changed with the `silencewait' command or by specifying a
       number of seconds instead of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially
       off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows monitored for silence should
       wait before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file for num
       seconds.  Keyboard activity will end the sleep.  It may be used
       to give users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current
       window by the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slowpaste value is
       nonzero text is written character by character.  screen will make
       a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write to
       allow the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if
       your underlying system exposes flow control problems while
       pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands may be
       nested to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not an
       absolute path and screen is already processing a source command,
       the parent directory of the running source command file is used
       to search for the new command file before screen's current

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at
       startup and reattach time, so they must be reached via the
       default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the
       display are resized to make room for the new region. The blank
       window is displayed in the new region. The default is to create a
       horizontal split, putting the new regions on the top and bottom
       of each other. Using `-v' will create a vertical split, causing
       the new regions to appear side by side of each other.  Use the
       "remove" or the "only" command to delete regions.  Use "focus" to
       toggle between regions.

       When a region is split opposite of how it was previously split
       (that is, vertical then horizontal or horizontal then vertical),
       a new layer is created. The layer is used to group together the
       regions that are split the same. Normally, as a user, you should
       not see nor have to worry about layers, but they will affect how
       some commands ("focus" and "resize") behave.

       With this current implementation of screen, scrolling data will
       appear much slower in a vertically split region than one that is
       not. This should be taken into consideration if you need to use
       system commands such as "cat" or "tail -f".

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the copyright notice during
       startup.  Default is `on', as you probably noticed.

       status [top|up|down|bottom] [left|right]

       The status window by default is in bottom-left corner. This
       command can move status messages to any corner of the screen. top
       is the same as up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff the string string in the input buffer of the current
       window.  This is like the "paste" command but with much less
       overhead.  Without a parameter, screen will prompt for a string
       to stuff.  You cannot paste large buffers with the "stuff"
       command. It is most useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all
       parameters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as
       parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first
       password is matched against the systems passwd database, the
       second password is matched against the screen password as set
       with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may be useful for
       the screen administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the
       identification fails, the user has access to the commands
       available for user nobody.  These are "detach", "license",
       "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while
       screen is suspended. This feature relies on the shell being able
       to do job control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is
       set to "screen" by default.  But when no description for "screen"
       is installed in the local termcap or terminfo data base, you set
       $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm, as screen is
       VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use of the "term" command is
       discouraged for non-default purpose.  That is, one may want to
       specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the next "screen
       rlogin othermachine" command. Use the command "screen -T vt100
       rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without
       going through all the hassles involved in creating a custom
       termcap entry.  Plus, you can optionally customize the termcap
       generated for the windows.  You have to place these commands in
       one of the screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once
       the terminal emulator is booted.

       If your system uses the terminfo database rather than termcap,
       screen will understand the `terminfo' command, which has the same
       effects as the `termcap' command.  Two separate commands are
       provided, as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when
       parameter interpolation (using `%') is required. Note that
       termcap names of the capabilities have to be used with the
       `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and
       termcap syntax, you can use the command `termcapinfo', which is
       just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo' commands
       with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected
       by this definition.  You can specify multiple terminal names by
       separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all terminals and
       `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines
       (separated by `:'s) to be inserted at the start of the
       appropriate termcap entry, enhancing it or overriding existing
       values.  The first tweak modifies your terminal's termcap, and
       contains definitions that your terminal uses to perform certain
       functions.  Specify a null string to leave this unchanged (e.g.
       '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the window
       termcaps, and should contain definitions that screen understands
       (see the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with `xterm' have
       firm auto-margins that allow the last position on the screen to
       be updated (LP), but they don't really have a status line (no
       'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP'
       for all terminal names that start with "vt", but only if you
       don't specify a termcap command for that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals
       that begin with `vt', and the second line will also add the
       escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back out of (Z1)
       132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You
       must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap to use the width-changing

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key
       labels to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and
       enables the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities
       (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so it is part of
       the string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions put into your
       terminal's termcap will cause screen to automatically advertise
       the character-insert capability in each window's termcap.  Each
       window will also get the delete-character capability (dc) added
       to its termcap, which screen will translate into a line-update
       for the terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support character

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry,
       you should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable prior to running
       screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this
       manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on
       termcap definitions.

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is
       specified, screen prompts for one. This command was known as
       `aka' in previous releases.

       truecolor [on|off]

       Enables truecolor support. Currently autodetection of truecolor
       support cannot be done reliably, as such it's left to user to
       enable. Default is off.  Known terminals that may support it are:
       iTerm2, Konsole, st.  Xterm includes support for truecolor
       escapes but converts them back to indexed 256 color space.


       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used
       solely for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a
       console application run as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is
       necessary to bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off[on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is
       enabled, the strings sent to the window will be UTF-8 encoded and
       vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles the setting. If a
       second parameter is given, the display's encoding is also changed
       (this should rather be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also
       "defutf8", which changes the default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the
       parameter toggles the setting. If vbell is switched on, but your
       terminal does not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is
       displayed in the status line when the bell character (^G) is
       received.  Visual bell support of a terminal is defined by the
       termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See
       also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status
       line if the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell is set
       to "on", but the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The
       default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without a parameter, the
       current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual
       bell message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a
       window is created (or resurrected from zombie state). Default is
       off.  Without a parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the
       terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set it to
       cols columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a
       capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".  See the
       "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a
       new height if you want to change both values.  The -w option
       tells screen to leave the display size unchanged and just set the
       window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  If
       screen was in a window group, screen will back out of the group
       and then display the windows in that group.  If the -b option is
       given, screen will switch to the blank window before presenting
       the list, so that the current window is also selectable.  The -m
       option changes the order of the windows, instead of sorting by
       window numbers screen uses its internal most-recently-used list.
       The -g option will show the windows inside any groups in that
       level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":

       k, C-p, or up      Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down    Move down one line.
       C-g or escape      Exit windowlist.
       C-a or home        Move to the first line.
       C-e or end         Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d         Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f         Move one full page up or down.
       0..9               Using the number keys, move to the selected line.
       mouseclick         Move to the selected line. Available when
                          "mousetrack" is set to "on"
       /                  Search.
       n                  Repeat search in the forward direction.
       N                  Repeat search in the backward direction.
       m                  Toggle MRU.
       g                  Toggle group nesting.
       a                  All window view.
       C-h or backspace   Back out the group.
       ,                  Switch numbers with the previous window.
       .                  Switch numbers with the next window.
       K                  Kill that window.
       space or enter     Select that window.

       The table format can be changed with the string and title option,
       the title is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made
       by using the string setting. The default setting is "Num
       Name%=Flags" for the title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color

       "Windowlist" needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide
       and 6 characters high in order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.  Each
       window is listed by number with the name of process that has been
       started in the window (or its title); the current window is
       marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all
       the windows that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a
       background window that has received a bell is marked with a `!';
       a background window that is being monitored and has had activity
       occur is marked with an `@'; a window which has output logging
       turned on is marked with `(L)'; windows occupied by other users
       are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state are marked with
       `Z'.  If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's status
       line only the portion around the current window is displayed.
       The optional string parameter follows the "STRING ESCAPES"
       format.  If string parameter is passed, the output size is
       unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is limited
       to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.  When line-
       wrap is on, the second consecutive printable character output at
       the last column of a line will wrap to the start of the following
       line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H) will also wrap through
       the left margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without
       any options, the state of wrap is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or
       the public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is
       given. This is thought of as a primitive means of communication
       between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is
       specified the paste buffer is recoded on the fly to match the
       encoding.  The filename can be set with the bufferfile command
       and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to
       write to the same window at once. Per default, writelock is in
       `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to the user who
       is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves
       the window, other users may obtain the writelock (automatically).
       The writelock of the current window is disabled by the command
       "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock on" he
       keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other



       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the
       current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two
       different modes when it detects a zmodem request: "pass" and
       "catch".  If the mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all
       data to the attacher until the end of the transmission is
       reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as a zmodem endpoint and
       starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is set to
       "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a
       serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".

       You can define the templates screen uses in "catch" mode via the
       second and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as
       soon as the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. When a string of
       two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead' windows will
       remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove such
       a window. Pressing the first key in the dead window has the same
       effect. When pressing the second key, screen will attempt to
       resurrect the window. The process that was initially running in
       the window will be launched again. Calling zombie without
       parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus making windows
       disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all windows,
       this command should probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after the keys. This
       will cause screen to monitor exit status of the process running
       in the window. If it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears.
       Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as
       soon as the windows process (e.g. shell) exits. If zombie keys
       are defined (compare with above zombie command), it is possible
       to also set a timeout when screen tries to automatically
       reconnect a dead screen window.

THE MESSAGE LINE         top

       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in a
       message line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the
       bottom of the screen, it can be defined to appear at the top of
       the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has a status
       line defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying
       its messages, otherwise a line of the current screen will be
       temporarily overwritten and output will be momentarily
       interrupted. The message line is automatically removed after a
       few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on terminals
       without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running
       in the current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message
       control sequence.  For instance, from within the shell, try
       something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and '\\'
       turns into a single backslash.

WINDOW TYPES         top

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are
       created with screen's screen command (see also the entry in
       chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command defines which type of window is created. The different
       window types are all special cases of the normal type. They have
       been added in order to allow screen to be used efficiently as a
       console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       •  The normal window contains a shell (default, if no parameter
          is given) or any other system command that could be executed
          from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       •  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is
          specified as the first parameter, then the window is directly
          connected to this device.  This window type is similar to
          "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required
          on the device node, an exclusive open is attempted on the node
          to mark the connection line as busy.  An optional parameter is
          allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags in the
          notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects
                 transmission as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-
                 S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for
                 receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many of these options as
          applicable. Unspecified options cause the terminal driver to
          make up the parameter values of the connection.  These values
          are system dependent and may be in defaults or values saved
          from a previous connection.

          For tty windows, the info command shows some of the modem
          control lines in the status line. These may include `RTS',
          `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
          available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on
          the physical capabilities of the serial board.  Signals that
          are logical low (inactive) have their name preceded by an
          exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high
          (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but available
          to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem
          signals is placed inside curly braces ({ and }).  When the
          CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS' or `CD'
          are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data
          transmission line (TxD) to go low for a specified period of
          time. This is expected to be interpreted as break signal on
          the other side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is
          changed when a break is issued.

       •  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second parameter is
          expected to be a host name, and an optional third parameter
          may specify a TCP port number (default decimal 23).  Screen
          will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use
          the telnet protocol to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the
       connection in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode'
                     (default: `line mode').

              t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been requested by the
                     remote host.  Screen sends the name "screen" unless
                     instructed otherwise (see also the command `term').

              w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size

              f      LFLOW. The remote host will send flow control
                     information.  (Ignored at the moment.)

              Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC,
              TSPEED and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet
              code IAC BREAK (decimal 243) to the remote host.

              This window type is only available if screen was compiled
              with the ENABLE_TELNET option defined.

STRING ESCAPES         top

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like
       the current time into messages or file names. The escape
       character is '%' with one exception: inside of a window's
       hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       C      The count of screen windows. Prefix with '-' to limit to
              current window group.

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags of the window, see "windows" for meanings of the
              various flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to
              the current window; with '+' qualifier: starting with the
              window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%'
              escape inside the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill).
              If a number is specified, pad to the percentage of the
              window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat the
              number as absolute position.  You can specify to pad
              relative to the last absolute pad position by adding a '+'
              qualifier or to pad relative to the right margin by using
              '-'. The padding truncates the string if the specified
              position lies before the current position. Add the 'L'
              qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with

       >      mark the current text position for the next truncation.
              When screen needs to do truncation, it tries to do it in a
              way that the marked position gets moved to the specified
              percentage of the output area. (The area starts from the
              last absolute pad position and ends with the position
              specified by the truncation operator.) The 'L' qualifier
              tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The
              length qualifier is misused to identify one of the

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make screen
       use zero instead of space as fill character. The '0' qualifier
       also makes the '=' escape use absolute positions. The 'n' and '='
       escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M'
       can be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also
       show the window flags if 'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is used to change the attributes or
       the color settings. Its format is "[attribute modifier] [color
       description]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a
       change type indicator if it can be confused with a color
       description. The following change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number
       or a combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       The old format of specifying colors by letters (k,r,g,y,b,m,c,w)
       is now deprecated. Colors are coded as 0-7 for basic ANSI, 0-255
       for 256 color mode, or for truecolor, either a hexadecimal code
       starting with x, or HTML notation as either 3 or 6 hexadecimal
       digits. Foreground and background are specified by putting a
       semicolon between them. Ex: "#FFF;#000" or "i7;0" is white on a
       black background.

       The following numbers are for basic ANSI:

       0      black
       1      red
       2      green
       3      yellow
       4      blue
       5      magenta
       6      cyan
       7      white

       You can also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the brightness
       and leave the color unchanged.
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that
       were set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of
       the color-change stack).


       "i2"   set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

              write in bright red color on a pale yellow background.

       %-Lw%{#AAA;#006}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and
              truncated to the available width. The current window is
              displayed white on blue.  This can be used with
              "hardstatus alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{;2}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus,
              if one is set.  Also use a red background if this is the
              active focus. Useful for "caption string".

FLOW-CONTROL         top

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen
       deals with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt
       character).  When flow-control is turned off, screen ignores the
       XON and XOFF characters, which allows the user to send them to
       the current program by simply typing them (useful for the emacs
       editor, for instance).  The trade-off is that it will take longer
       for output from a "normal" program to pause in response to an
       XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF characters are
       used to immediately pause the output of the current window.  You
       can still send these characters to the current program, but you
       must use the appropriate two-character screen commands (typically
       "C-a q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are
       also useful for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that
       intercepts these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with either the
       -f option or the "defflow" .screenrc command. Per default the
       windows are set to automatic flow-switching.  It can then be
       toggled between the three states 'fixed on', 'fixed off' and
       'automatic' interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using
       the TIOCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not
       support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode based on
       the current setting of the application keypad - when it is
       enabled, flow-control is turned off and visa versa.  Of course,
       you can still manipulate flow-control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and find that
       pressing the interrupt key (usually C-c) does not interrupt the
       display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running
       screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to
       the "flow" command in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line
       option).  This causes the output that screen has accumulated from
       the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that
       the virtual terminal's memory contains the non-flushed version of
       the output, which in rare cases can cause minor inaccuracies in
       the output.  For example, if you switch screens and return, or
       update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version of the
       output you would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.  Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to
       turn it off automatically) when running a program that expects
       you to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible
       to interrupt the output of the virtual terminal to your physical
       terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If this happens, a simple
       refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each
       mode a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)         top

       You can customize each window's name in the window display
       (viewed with the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with
       one of the title commands.  Normally the name displayed is the
       actual command name of the program created in the window.
       However, it is sometimes useful to distinguish various programs
       of the same name or to change the name on-the-fly to reflect the
       current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the
       "shelltitle" command in the .screenrc file, while all other
       windows are created with a "screen" command and thus can have
       their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the
       title-string escape-sequence (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title"
       command (C-a A).  The former can be output from an application to
       control the window's name under software control, and the latter
       will prompt for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined
       names to keys with the "title" command to set things quickly
       without prompting. Changing title by this escape sequence can be
       controlled by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by
       setting the window's name to "search|name" and arranging to have
       a null title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.
       The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search string,
       while the name portion specifies the default shell name for the
       window.  If the name ends in a `:' screen will add what it
       believes to be the current command running in the window to the
       end of the window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the
       current command name supersedes the shell name while it is

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to output
       a null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a part of your
       prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be the same as the
       string you specified for the search portion of the title.  Once
       this is set up, screen will use the title-escape-sequence to
       clear the previous command name and get ready for the next
       command.  Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a
       search is made for the end of the prompt.  If found, it will grab
       the first word after the matched string and use it as the command
       name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or '^'
       screen will use the first word on the following line (if found)
       in preference to the just-found name.  This helps csh users get
       better command names when using job control or history recall

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version
       of the "top" command in window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.
       The title specified is an auto-title that would expect the prompt
       and the typed command to look something like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The window
       status would show the name "trn" while the command was running,
       and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence
       "C-a R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title name of
       "root:".  For this auto-title to work, the screen could look
       something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the
       previously entered "emacs" command.  The window status would show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the command, and revert to
       simply "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt
       you for a title when you type "C-a o".  The second binding would
       clear an auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third binding
       would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-
       sequence to your prompt is that some shells (like the csh) count
       all the non-control characters as part of the prompt's length.
       If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then
       backspacing over a tab will result in an incorrect display.  One
       way to get around this is to use a prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes the
       character attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the
       invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will probably want to
       echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "\134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with
       some extra functions added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no
       other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI
       standard as possible. But if your terminal lacks certain
       capabilities, the emulation may not be complete. In these cases
       screen has to tell the applications that some of the features are
       missing. This is no problem on machines using termcap, because
       screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to customize the standard
       screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine
       supports only terminfo this method fails. Because of this, screen
       offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for itself, it
       first looks for an entry named "screen.<term>", where <term> is
       the contents of your $TERM variable.  If no such entry exists,
       screen tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132
       cols or more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is
       used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an
       important feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you can
       build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen (named
       "screen.<dumbterm>") in which this capability has been disabled.
       If this entry is installed on your machines you are able to do a
       rlogin and still keep the correct termcap/terminfo entry.  The
       terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of all new windows.
       Screen also sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that,
       however, on machines using the terminfo database this variable
       has no effect.  Furthermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the
       window number of each window.

       The actual set of capabilities supported by the virtual terminal
       depends on the capabilities supported by the physical terminal.
       If, for instance, the physical terminal does not support
       underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue'
       capabilities into the window's $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.
       However, a minimum number of capabilities must be supported by a
       terminal in order to run screen; namely scrolling, clear screen,
       and direct cursor addressing (in addition, screen does not run on
       hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by
       using the "termcap" .screenrc command, or by defining the
       variable $SCREENCAP prior to startup.  When the latter is
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's
       $TERMCAP variable.  This can either be the full terminal
       definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen" (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the
       system uses the terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry
       for the terminal on which screen has been called, the terminal
       emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.  This
       allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100
       graphics character set or national character sets.  The following
       control functions from ISO 2022 are supported: lock shift G0
       (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single
       shift G2, and single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is
       created or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen
       evaluates the capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0'
       is the sequence the terminal uses to enable and start the
       graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding
       replacement for SO. `C0' gives a character by character
       translation string that is used during semi-graphics mode. This
       string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When the `po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's
       termcap entry, applications running in a screen window can send
       output to the printer port of the terminal.  This allows a user
       to have an application in one window sending output to a printer
       connected to the terminal, while all other windows are still
       active (the printer port is enabled and disabled again for each
       chunk of output).  As a side-effect, programs running in
       different windows can send output to the printer simultaneously.
       Data sent to the printer is not displayed in the window.  The
       info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the printer is

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If a window
       gets selected, the display's hardstatus will be updated to match
       the window's hardstatus line. If the display has no hardstatus
       the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The
       hardstatus line can be changed with the ANSI Application Program
       Command (APC): "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a convenience for xterm
       users the sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the
       virtual terminal if they can be efficiently implemented by the
       physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line) is only put
       into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete
       line itself or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke
       confusion, when the session is reattached on a different
       terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set
       the altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is a list of control sequences recognized by
       screen.  "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or
       ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E  Next Line

       ESC D  Index

       ESC M  Reverse Index

       ESC H  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)
              Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)
              Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)
              Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)
              Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c  Reset to Initial State

       ESC g  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p
              Cursor Visibility (97801)

              Pn = 6 Invisible

              Pn = 7 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)
              Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)
              Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)
              Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)
              String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)
              Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !  Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)
              Device Control String.  Outputs a string directly to the
              host terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _                 (A)
              Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)
              Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)
              Execute screen command. This only works if multi-user
              support is compiled into screen. The pseudo-user
              ":window:" is used to check the access control list. Use
              "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to create a user with no rights
              and allow only the needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)
              Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)
              Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)
              Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)
              Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)
              Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)
              Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)
              Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)
              Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)
              Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)
              Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H
              Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f
              same as above

       ESC [ Pn J
              Erase in Display

              Pn = None or 0
                     From Cursor to End of Screen

              Pn = 1 From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

              Pn = 2 Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K
              Erase in Line

              Pn = None or 0
                     From Cursor to End of Line

              Pn = 1 From Beginning of Line to Cursor

              Pn = 2 Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X
              Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A
              Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B
              Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C
              Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D
              Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E
              Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F
              Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G
              Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `
              same as above

       ESC [ Pn d
              Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m
              Select Graphic Rendition

              Ps = None or 0
                     Default Rendition

              Ps = 1 Bold

              Ps = 2                (A)

              Ps = 3                (A)
                     Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

              Ps = 4 Underlined

              Ps = 5 Blinking

              Ps = 7 Negative Image

              Ps = 22               (A)
                     Normal Intensity

              Ps = 23               (A)
                     Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

              Ps = 24               (A)
                     Not Underlined

              Ps = 25               (A)
                     Not Blinking

              Ps = 27               (A)
                     Positive Image

              Ps = 30               (A)
                     Foreground Black

              Ps = 31               (A)
                     Foreground Red

              Ps = 32               (A)
                     Foreground Green

              Ps = 33               (A)
                     Foreground Yellow

              Ps = 34               (A)
                     Foreground Blue

              Ps = 35               (A)
                     Foreground Magenta

              Ps = 36               (A)
                     Foreground Cyan

              Ps = 37               (A)
                     Foreground White

              Ps = 39               (A)
                     Foreground Default

              Ps = 40               (A)
                     Background Black

              Ps = ...

              Ps = 49               (A)
                     Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g
              Tab Clear

              Pn = None or 0
                     Clear Tab at Current Position

              Pn = 3 Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)
              Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)
              Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)
              Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)
              Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)
              Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)
              Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)
              Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S
              Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T
              Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^
              same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h
              Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l
              Reset Mode

              Ps = 4                (A)
                     Insert Mode

              Ps = 20               (A)
                     Automatic Linefeed Mode

              Ps = 34
                     Normal Cursor Visibility

              Ps = ?1               (V)
                     Application Cursor Keys

              Ps = ?3               (V)
                     Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

              Ps = ?5               (V)
                     Reverse Video

              Ps = ?6               (V)
                     Origin Mode

              Ps = ?7               (V)
                     Wrap Mode

              Ps = ?9
                     X10 mouse tracking

              Ps = ?25              (V)
                     Visible Cursor

              Ps = ?47
                     Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

              Ps = ?1000            (V)
                     VT200 mouse tracking

              Ps = ?1047
                     Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

              Ps = ?1049
                     Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)
              Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)
              Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t
              Resize the window to `Ph' lines and `Pw' columns (SunView

       ESC [ c
              Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x
              Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c
              Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n
              Send Cursor Position Report


       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a
       sequence of characters in the input stream was generated by a
       keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the VT100 style escape
       sequence. Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making
       it possible to map arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of
       characters. For standard VT100 emulation the command will always
       insert a string in the input buffer of the window (see also
       command stuff in the command table).  Because the sequences
       generated by a keypress can change after a reattach from a
       different terminal type, it is possible to bind commands to the
       termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the correct binding
       after each reattach. See the bindkey command for further details
       on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what
       command is executed if the keyboard is switched into application

       │ Key name        │ Termcap name │ Command  │ App mode │
       │ Cursor up       │ ku           │ \033[A   │ \033OA   │
       │ Cursor down     │ kd           │ \033[B   │ \033OB   │
       │ Cursor right    │ kr           │ \033[C   │ \033OC   │
       │ Cursor left     │ kl           │ \033[D   │ \033OD   │
       │ Function key 0  │ k0           │ \033[10~ │          │
       │ Function key 1  │ k1           │ \033OP   │          │
       │ Function key 2  │ k2           │ \033OQ   │          │
       │ Function key 3  │ k3           │ \033OR   │          │
       │ Function key 4  │ k4           │ \033OS   │          │
       │ Function key 5  │ k5           │ \033[15~ │          │
       │ Function key 6  │ k6           │ \033[17~ │          │
       │ Function key 7  │ k7           │ \033[18~ │          │
       │ Function key 8  │ k8           │ \033[19~ │          │
       │ Function key 9  │ k9           │ \033[20~ │          │
       │ Function key 10 │ k;           │ \033[21~ │          │
       │ Function key 11 │ F1           │ \033[23~ │          │
       │ Function key 12 │ F2           │ \033[24~ │          │
       │ Home            │ kh           │ \033[1~  │          │
       │ End             │ kH           │ \033[4~  │          │
       │ Insert          │ kI           │ \033[2~  │          │
       │ Delete          │ kD           │ \033[3~  │          │
       │ Page up         │ kP           │ \033[5~  │          │
       │ Page down       │ kN           │ \033[6~  │          │
       │ Keypad 0        │ f0           │ 0        │ \033Op   │
       │ Keypad 1        │ f1           │ 1        │ \033Oq   │
       │ Keypad 2        │ f2           │ 2        │ \033Or   │
       │ Keypad 3        │ f3           │ 3        │ \033Os   │
       │ Keypad 4        │ f4           │ 4        │ \033Ot   │
       │ Keypad 5        │ f5           │ 5        │ \033Ou   │
       │ Keypad 6        │ f6           │ 6        │ \033Ov   │
       │ Keypad 7        │ f7           │ 7        │ \033Ow   │
       │ Keypad 8        │ f8           │ 8        │ \033Ox   │
       │ Keypad 9        │ f9           │ 9        │ \033Oy   │
       │ Keypad +        │ f+           │ +        │ \033Ok   │
       │ Keypad -        │ f-           │ -        │ \033Om   │
       │ Keypad *        │ f*           │ *        │ \033Oj   │
       │ Keypad /        │ f/           │ /        │ \033Oo   │
       │ Keypad =        │ fq           │ =        │ \033OX   │
       │ Keypad .        │ f.           │ .        │ \033On   │
       │ Keypad ,        │ f,           │ ,        │ \033Ol   │
       │ Keypad enter    │ fe           │ \015     │ \033OM   │


       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are
       recognized by screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You
       can place these capabilities in your termcap entries (in
       `/etc/termcap') or use them with the commands `termcap',
       `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often
       not possible to place these capabilities in the terminfo

       LP   (bool)
              Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note
              that this capability is obsolete because screen uses the
              standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)
              Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)
              Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)
              Resize display. This capability has the desired width and
              height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)
              Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct
              to the application. Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of
              this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)
              Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)
              Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)
              Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is

       C0   (str)
              Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See the
              'ac' capability for more details.

       CS   (str)
              Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)
              Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)
              Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more

       OL   (num)
              Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
              for more details.

       KJ   (str)
              Set the encoding of the terminal. See the 'encoding'
              command for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)
              Change character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
              This capability will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm'
              ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)
              Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)
              Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)
              Describe a translation of characters to strings depending
              on the current font. More details follow in the next

       XT   (bool)
              Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse

       C8   (bool)
              Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)
              Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set
              by default).


       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to
       arbitrary strings depending on the current font and terminal
       type.  Use this feature if you want to work with a common
       standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals
       that scatter the more unusual characters over several national
       language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A <charset-mapping> tells screen how to map characters in font
       <designator> ('B': Ascii, 'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to
       strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as
       most of the time the codes have a lot in common (for example
       strings to switch to and from another charset). Each occurrence
       of '%' in <template> gets substituted with the <template-arg>
       specified together with the character. If your strings are not
       similar at all, then use '%' as a template and place the full
       string in <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to make
       it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the
       special characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper
       case umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a German
       charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B' and so on.  Note
       that this line gets parsed *three* times before the internal
       lookup table is built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to
       create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the terminal
       whenever screen switches to the corresponding <designator>. In
       this special case the template is assumed to be just '%' because
       the charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally
       haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.
       If screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent
       to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The
       template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to
       '\304', '\' to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides
                      termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default shell program for opening windows (default
                      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
                      Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).

FILES         top

       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the screen
                                         distribution package for
                                         private and global
                                         initialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc           screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after
       /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen `interprocess
                                         communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the
                                         hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by the
                                         log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.

SEE ALSO         top

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

AUTHORS         top

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained
       and developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan
       and Sadrul Habib Chowdhury. Since 2015 maintained and developed
       by Amadeusz Slawinski <> and Alexander Naumov

COPYLEFT         top

       Copyright (c) 2018-2022
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
       modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
       published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or
       (at your option) any later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
       but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       General Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
       along with this program (see the file COPYING); if not, write to
       the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
       Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

CONTRIBUTORS         top

       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.

VERSION         top

       This is version 4.8.0. Its roots are a merge of a custom version
       2.3PR7 by Wayne Davison and several enhancements to Oliver
       Laumann's version 2.0. Note that all versions numbered 2.x are
       copyright by Oliver Laumann.

AVAILABILITY         top

       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous ftp
       from or any other GNU distribution site.
       The home site of screen is If
       you want to help, send a note to

BUGS         top

       •  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled correctly (they
          are ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       •  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide
          characters.  But this is the only area where vttest is allowed
          to fail.

       •  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP
          when reattaching under a different terminal type.

       •  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding
          extra capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       •  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       •  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most
          systems in order to be able to correctly change the owner of
          the tty device file for each window.  Special permission may
          also be required to write the file "/etc/utmp".

       •  Entries in "/etc/utmp" are not removed when screen is killed
          with SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs (like "w" or
          "rwho") to advertise that a user is logged on who really

       •  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp

       •  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically
          detach (or quit) unless the device driver is configured to
          send a HANGUP signal.  To detach a screen session use the -D
          or -d command line option.

       •  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still
          detach a session without asking.

       •  Both "breaktype" and "defbreaktype" change the break
          generating method used by all terminal devices. The first
          should change a window specific setting, where the latter
          should change only the default for new windows.

       •  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc
          file is not sourced. Each user's personal settings have to be
          included in the .screenrc file from which the session is
          booted, or have to be changed manually.

       •  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of
          all the features.

       •  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer &
          pizza to

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the screen (screen manager) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report
       for this manual page, see
       ⟨⟩.  This
       page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2023-12-22.  (At
       that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in
       the repository was 2023-08-22.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

4th Berkeley Distribution       Feb 2017                       SCREEN(1)

Pages that refer to this page: curs_termcap(3x)logind.conf(5)tmpfiles.d(5)user_caps(5)pty(7)