cpp(1) — Linux manual page


CPP(1)                             GNU                            CPP(1)

NAME         top

       cpp - The C Preprocessor

SYNOPSIS         top

       cpp [-Dmacro[=defn]...] [-Umacro]
           [-Idir...] [-iquotedir...]
           [-M|-MM] [-MG] [-MF filename]
           [-MP] [-MQ target...]
           [-MT target...]
           infile [[-o] outfile]

       Only the most useful options are given above; see below for a
       more complete list of preprocessor-specific options.  In
       addition, cpp accepts most gcc driver options, which are not
       listed here.  Refer to the GCC documentation for details.

DESCRIPTION         top

       The C preprocessor, often known as cpp, is a macro processor that
       is used automatically by the C compiler to transform your program
       before compilation.  It is called a macro processor because it
       allows you to define macros, which are brief abbreviations for
       longer constructs.

       The C preprocessor is intended to be used only with C, C++, and
       Objective-C source code.  In the past, it has been abused as a
       general text processor.  It will choke on input which does not
       obey C's lexical rules.  For example, apostrophes will be
       interpreted as the beginning of character constants, and cause
       errors.  Also, you cannot rely on it preserving characteristics
       of the input which are not significant to C-family languages.  If
       a Makefile is preprocessed, all the hard tabs will be removed,
       and the Makefile will not work.

       Having said that, you can often get away with using cpp on things
       which are not C.  Other Algol-ish programming languages are often
       safe (Ada, etc.) So is assembly, with caution.  -traditional-cpp
       mode preserves more white space, and is otherwise more
       permissive.  Many of the problems can be avoided by writing C or
       C++ style comments instead of native language comments, and
       keeping macros simple.

       Wherever possible, you should use a preprocessor geared to the
       language you are writing in.  Modern versions of the GNU
       assembler have macro facilities.  Most high level programming
       languages have their own conditional compilation and inclusion
       mechanism.  If all else fails, try a true general text processor,
       such as GNU M4.

       C preprocessors vary in some details.  This manual discusses the
       GNU C preprocessor, which provides a small superset of the
       features of ISO Standard C.  In its default mode, the GNU C
       preprocessor does not do a few things required by the standard.
       These are features which are rarely, if ever, used, and may cause
       surprising changes to the meaning of a program which does not
       expect them.  To get strict ISO Standard C, you should use the
       -std=c90, -std=c99, -std=c11 or -std=c17 options, depending on
       which version of the standard you want.  To get all the mandatory
       diagnostics, you must also use -pedantic.

       This manual describes the behavior of the ISO preprocessor.  To
       minimize gratuitous differences, where the ISO preprocessor's
       behavior does not conflict with traditional semantics, the
       traditional preprocessor should behave the same way.  The various
       differences that do exist are detailed in the section Traditional

       For clarity, unless noted otherwise, references to CPP in this
       manual refer to GNU CPP.

OPTIONS         top

       The cpp command expects two file names as arguments, infile and
       outfile.  The preprocessor reads infile together with any other
       files it specifies with #include.  All the output generated by
       the combined input files is written in outfile.

       Either infile or outfile may be -, which as infile means to read
       from standard input and as outfile means to write to standard
       output.  If either file is omitted, it means the same as if - had
       been specified for that file.  You can also use the -o outfile
       option to specify the output file.

       Unless otherwise noted, or the option ends in =, all options
       which take an argument may have that argument appear either
       immediately after the option, or with a space between option and
       argument: -Ifoo and -I foo have the same effect.

       Many options have multi-letter names; therefore multiple single-
       letter options may not be grouped: -dM is very different from
       -d -M.

       -D name
           Predefine name as a macro, with definition 1.

       -D name=definition
           The contents of definition are tokenized and processed as if
           they appeared during translation phase three in a #define
           directive.  In particular, the definition is truncated by
           embedded newline characters.

           If you are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-
           like program you may need to use the shell's quoting syntax
           to protect characters such as spaces that have a meaning in
           the shell syntax.

           If you wish to define a function-like macro on the command
           line, write its argument list with surrounding parentheses
           before the equals sign (if any).  Parentheses are meaningful
           to most shells, so you should quote the option.  With sh and
           csh, -D'name(args...)=definition' works.

           -D and -U options are processed in the order they are given
           on the command line.  All -imacros file and -include file
           options are processed after all -D and -U options.

       -U name
           Cancel any previous definition of name, either built in or
           provided with a -D option.

       -include file
           Process file as if "#include "file"" appeared as the first
           line of the primary source file.  However, the first
           directory searched for file is the preprocessor's working
           directory instead of the directory containing the main source
           file.  If not found there, it is searched for in the
           remainder of the "#include "..."" search chain as normal.

           If multiple -include options are given, the files are
           included in the order they appear on the command line.

       -imacros file
           Exactly like -include, except that any output produced by
           scanning file is thrown away.  Macros it defines remain
           defined.  This allows you to acquire all the macros from a
           header without also processing its declarations.

           All files specified by -imacros are processed before all
           files specified by -include.

           Do not predefine any system-specific or GCC-specific macros.
           The standard predefined macros remain defined.

           Define additional macros required for using the POSIX threads
           library.  You should use this option consistently for both
           compilation and linking.  This option is supported on
           GNU/Linux targets, most other Unix derivatives, and also on
           x86 Cygwin and MinGW targets.

       -M  Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a
           rule suitable for make describing the dependencies of the
           main source file.  The preprocessor outputs one make rule
           containing the object file name for that source file, a
           colon, and the names of all the included files, including
           those coming from -include or -imacros command-line options.

           Unless specified explicitly (with -MT or -MQ), the object
           file name consists of the name of the source file with any
           suffix replaced with object file suffix and with any leading
           directory parts removed.  If there are many included files
           then the rule is split into several lines using \-newline.
           The rule has no commands.

           This option does not suppress the preprocessor's debug
           output, such as -dM.  To avoid mixing such debug output with
           the dependency rules you should explicitly specify the
           dependency output file with -MF, or use an environment
           variable like DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT.  Debug output is still
           sent to the regular output stream as normal.

           Passing -M to the driver implies -E, and suppresses warnings
           with an implicit -w.

       -MM Like -M but do not mention header files that are found in
           system header directories, nor header files that are
           included, directly or indirectly, from such a header.

           This implies that the choice of angle brackets or double
           quotes in an #include directive does not in itself determine
           whether that header appears in -MM dependency output.

       -MF file
           When used with -M or -MM, specifies a file to write the
           dependencies to.  If no -MF switch is given the preprocessor
           sends the rules to the same place it would send preprocessed

           When used with the driver options -MD or -MMD, -MF overrides
           the default dependency output file.

           If file is -, then the dependencies are written to stdout.

       -MG In conjunction with an option such as -M requesting
           dependency generation, -MG assumes missing header files are
           generated files and adds them to the dependency list without
           raising an error.  The dependency filename is taken directly
           from the "#include" directive without prepending any path.
           -MG also suppresses preprocessed output, as a missing header
           file renders this useless.

           This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles.

       -MP This option instructs CPP to add a phony target for each
           dependency other than the main file, causing each to depend
           on nothing.  These dummy rules work around errors make gives
           if you remove header files without updating the Makefile to

           This is typical output:

                   test.o: test.c test.h


       -MT target
           Change the target of the rule emitted by dependency
           generation.  By default CPP takes the name of the main input
           file, deletes any directory components and any file suffix
           such as .c, and appends the platform's usual object suffix.
           The result is the target.

           An -MT option sets the target to be exactly the string you
           specify.  If you want multiple targets, you can specify them
           as a single argument to -MT, or use multiple -MT options.

           For example, -MT '$(objpfx)foo.o' might give

                   $(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c

       -MQ target
           Same as -MT, but it quotes any characters which are special
           to Make.  -MQ '$(objpfx)foo.o' gives

                   $$(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c

           The default target is automatically quoted, as if it were
           given with -MQ.

       -MD -MD is equivalent to -M -MF file, except that -E is not
           implied.  The driver determines file based on whether an -o
           option is given.  If it is, the driver uses its argument but
           with a suffix of .d, otherwise it takes the name of the input
           file, removes any directory components and suffix, and
           applies a .d suffix.

           If -MD is used in conjunction with -E, any -o switch is
           understood to specify the dependency output file, but if used
           without -E, each -o is understood to specify a target object

           Since -E is not implied, -MD can be used to generate a
           dependency output file as a side effect of the compilation

           Like -MD except mention only user header files, not system
           header files.

           Indicate to the preprocessor that the input file has already
           been preprocessed.  This suppresses things like macro
           expansion, trigraph conversion, escaped newline splicing, and
           processing of most directives.  The preprocessor still
           recognizes and removes comments, so that you can pass a file
           preprocessed with -C to the compiler without problems.  In
           this mode the integrated preprocessor is little more than a
           tokenizer for the front ends.

           -fpreprocessed is implicit if the input file has one of the
           extensions .i, .ii or .mi.  These are the extensions that GCC
           uses for preprocessed files created by -save-temps.

           When preprocessing, handle directives, but do not expand

           The option's behavior depends on the -E and -fpreprocessed

           With -E, preprocessing is limited to the handling of
           directives such as "#define", "#ifdef", and "#error".  Other
           preprocessor operations, such as macro expansion and trigraph
           conversion are not performed.  In addition, the -dD option is
           implicitly enabled.

           With -fpreprocessed, predefinition of command line and most
           builtin macros is disabled.  Macros such as "__LINE__", which
           are contextually dependent, are handled normally.  This
           enables compilation of files previously preprocessed with "-E

           With both -E and -fpreprocessed, the rules for -fpreprocessed
           take precedence.  This enables full preprocessing of files
           previously preprocessed with "-E -fdirectives-only".

           Accept $ in identifiers.

           Accept universal character names in identifiers.  This option
           is enabled by default for C99 (and later C standard versions)
           and C++.

           When preprocessing, do not shorten system header paths with

           Set the distance between tab stops.  This helps the
           preprocessor report correct column numbers in warnings or
           errors, even if tabs appear on the line.  If the value is
           less than 1 or greater than 100, the option is ignored.  The
           default is 8.

           Track locations of tokens across macro expansions. This
           allows the compiler to emit diagnostic about the current
           macro expansion stack when a compilation error occurs in a
           macro expansion. Using this option makes the preprocessor and
           the compiler consume more memory. The level parameter can be
           used to choose the level of precision of token location
           tracking thus decreasing the memory consumption if necessary.
           Value 0 of level de-activates this option. Value 1 tracks
           tokens locations in a degraded mode for the sake of minimal
           memory overhead. In this mode all tokens resulting from the
           expansion of an argument of a function-like macro have the
           same location. Value 2 tracks tokens locations completely.
           This value is the most memory hungry.  When this option is
           given no argument, the default parameter value is 2.

           Note that "-ftrack-macro-expansion=2" is activated by

           When preprocessing files residing in directory old, expand
           the "__FILE__" and "__BASE_FILE__" macros as if the files
           resided in directory new instead.  This can be used to change
           an absolute path to a relative path by using . for new which
           can result in more reproducible builds that are location
           independent.  This option also affects "__builtin_FILE()"
           during compilation.  See also -ffile-prefix-map.

           Set the execution character set, used for string and
           character constants.  The default is UTF-8.  charset can be
           any encoding supported by the system's "iconv" library

           Set the wide execution character set, used for wide string
           and character constants.  The default is UTF-32 or UTF-16,
           whichever corresponds to the width of "wchar_t".  As with
           -fexec-charset, charset can be any encoding supported by the
           system's "iconv" library routine; however, you will have
           problems with encodings that do not fit exactly in "wchar_t".

           Set the input character set, used for translation from the
           character set of the input file to the source character set
           used by GCC.  If the locale does not specify, or GCC cannot
           get this information from the locale, the default is UTF-8.
           This can be overridden by either the locale or this command-
           line option.  Currently the command-line option takes
           precedence if there's a conflict.  charset can be any
           encoding supported by the system's "iconv" library routine.

           Enable generation of linemarkers in the preprocessor output
           that let the compiler know the current working directory at
           the time of preprocessing.  When this option is enabled, the
           preprocessor emits, after the initial linemarker, a second
           linemarker with the current working directory followed by two
           slashes.  GCC uses this directory, when it's present in the
           preprocessed input, as the directory emitted as the current
           working directory in some debugging information formats.
           This option is implicitly enabled if debugging information is
           enabled, but this can be inhibited with the negated form
           -fno-working-directory.  If the -P flag is present in the
           command line, this option has no effect, since no "#line"
           directives are emitted whatsoever.

       -A predicate=answer
           Make an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer
           answer.  This form is preferred to the older form -A
           predicate(answer), which is still supported, because it does
           not use shell special characters.

       -A -predicate=answer
           Cancel an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer

       -C  Do not discard comments.  All comments are passed through to
           the output file, except for comments in processed directives,
           which are deleted along with the directive.

           You should be prepared for side effects when using -C; it
           causes the preprocessor to treat comments as tokens in their
           own right.  For example, comments appearing at the start of
           what would be a directive line have the effect of turning
           that line into an ordinary source line, since the first token
           on the line is no longer a #.

       -CC Do not discard comments, including during macro expansion.
           This is like -C, except that comments contained within macros
           are also passed through to the output file where the macro is

           In addition to the side effects of the -C option, the -CC
           option causes all C++-style comments inside a macro to be
           converted to C-style comments.  This is to prevent later use
           of that macro from inadvertently commenting out the remainder
           of the source line.

           The -CC option is generally used to support lint comments.

       -P  Inhibit generation of linemarkers in the output from the
           preprocessor.  This might be useful when running the
           preprocessor on something that is not C code, and will be
           sent to a program which might be confused by the linemarkers.

           Try to imitate the behavior of pre-standard C preprocessors,
           as opposed to ISO C preprocessors.

           Note that GCC does not otherwise attempt to emulate a pre-
           standard C compiler, and these options are only supported
           with the -E switch, or when invoking CPP explicitly.

           Support ISO C trigraphs.  These are three-character
           sequences, all starting with ??, that are defined by ISO C to
           stand for single characters.  For example, ??/ stands for \,
           so '??/n' is a character constant for a newline.

           By default, GCC ignores trigraphs, but in standard-conforming
           modes it converts them.  See the -std and -ansi options.

           Enable special code to work around file systems which only
           permit very short file names, such as MS-DOS.

       -H  Print the name of each header file used, in addition to other
           normal activities.  Each name is indented to show how deep in
           the #include stack it is.  Precompiled header files are also
           printed, even if they are found to be invalid; an invalid
           precompiled header file is printed with ...x and a valid one
           with ...! .

           Says to make debugging dumps during compilation as specified
           by letters.  The flags documented here are those relevant to
           the preprocessor.  Other letters are interpreted by the
           compiler proper, or reserved for future versions of GCC, and
           so are silently ignored.  If you specify letters whose
           behavior conflicts, the result is undefined.

           -dM Instead of the normal output, generate a list of #define
               directives for all the macros defined during the
               execution of the preprocessor, including predefined
               macros.  This gives you a way of finding out what is
               predefined in your version of the preprocessor.  Assuming
               you have no file foo.h, the command

                       touch foo.h; cpp -dM foo.h

               shows all the predefined macros.

           -dD Like -dM except in two respects: it does not include the
               predefined macros, and it outputs both the #define
               directives and the result of preprocessing.  Both kinds
               of output go to the standard output file.

           -dN Like -dD, but emit only the macro names, not their

           -dI Output #include directives in addition to the result of

           -dU Like -dD except that only macros that are expanded, or
               whose definedness is tested in preprocessor directives,
               are output; the output is delayed until the use or test
               of the macro; and #undef directives are also output for
               macros tested but undefined at the time.

           This option is only useful for debugging GCC.  When used from
           CPP or with -E, it dumps debugging information about location
           maps.  Every token in the output is preceded by the dump of
           the map its location belongs to.

           When used from GCC without -E, this option has no effect.

       -I dir
       -iquote dir
       -isystem dir
       -idirafter dir
           Add the directory dir to the list of directories to be
           searched for header files during preprocessing.

           If dir begins with = or $SYSROOT, then the = or $SYSROOT is
           replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.

           Directories specified with -iquote apply only to the quote
           form of the directive, "#include "file"".  Directories
           specified with -I, -isystem, or -idirafter apply to lookup
           for both the "#include "file"" and "#include <file>"

           You can specify any number or combination of these options on
           the command line to search for header files in several
           directories.  The lookup order is as follows:

           1.  For the quote form of the include directive, the
               directory of the current file is searched first.

           2.  For the quote form of the include directive, the
               directories specified by -iquote options are searched in
               left-to-right order, as they appear on the command line.

           3.  Directories specified with -I options are scanned in
               left-to-right order.

           4.  Directories specified with -isystem options are scanned
               in left-to-right order.

           5.  Standard system directories are scanned.

           6.  Directories specified with -idirafter options are scanned
               in left-to-right order.

           You can use -I to override a system header file, substituting
           your own version, since these directories are searched before
           the standard system header file directories.  However, you
           should not use this option to add directories that contain
           vendor-supplied system header files; use -isystem for that.

           The -isystem and -idirafter options also mark the directory
           as a system directory, so that it gets the same special
           treatment that is applied to the standard system directories.

           If a standard system include directory, or a directory
           specified with -isystem, is also specified with -I, the -I
           option is ignored.  The directory is still searched but as a
           system directory at its normal position in the system include
           chain.  This is to ensure that GCC's procedure to fix buggy
           system headers and the ordering for the "#include_next"
           directive are not inadvertently changed.  If you really need
           to change the search order for system directories, use the
           -nostdinc and/or -isystem options.

       -I- Split the include path.  This option has been deprecated.
           Please use -iquote instead for -I directories before the -I-
           and remove the -I- option.

           Any directories specified with -I options before -I- are
           searched only for headers requested with "#include "file"";
           they are not searched for "#include <file>".  If additional
           directories are specified with -I options after the -I-,
           those directories are searched for all #include directives.

           In addition, -I- inhibits the use of the directory of the
           current file directory as the first search directory for
           "#include "file"".  There is no way to override this effect
           of -I-.

       -iprefix prefix
           Specify prefix as the prefix for subsequent -iwithprefix
           options.  If the prefix represents a directory, you should
           include the final /.

       -iwithprefix dir
       -iwithprefixbefore dir
           Append dir to the prefix specified previously with -iprefix,
           and add the resulting directory to the include search path.
           -iwithprefixbefore puts it in the same place -I would;
           -iwithprefix puts it where -idirafter would.

       -isysroot dir
           This option is like the --sysroot option, but applies only to
           header files (except for Darwin targets, where it applies to
           both header files and libraries).  See the --sysroot option
           for more information.

       -imultilib dir
           Use dir as a subdirectory of the directory containing target-
           specific C++ headers.

           Do not search the standard system directories for header
           files.  Only the directories explicitly specified with -I,
           -iquote, -isystem, and/or -idirafter options (and the
           directory of the current file, if appropriate) are searched.

           Do not search for header files in the C++-specific standard
           directories, but do still search the other standard
           directories.  (This option is used when building the C++

           Warn whenever a comment-start sequence /* appears in a /*
           comment, or whenever a backslash-newline appears in a //
           comment.  This warning is enabled by -Wall.

           Warn if any trigraphs are encountered that might change the
           meaning of the program.  Trigraphs within comments are not
           warned about, except those that would form escaped newlines.

           This option is implied by -Wall.  If -Wall is not given, this
           option is still enabled unless trigraphs are enabled.  To get
           trigraph conversion without warnings, but get the other -Wall
           warnings, use -trigraphs -Wall -Wno-trigraphs.

           Warn if an undefined identifier is evaluated in an "#if"
           directive.  Such identifiers are replaced with zero.

           Warn whenever defined is encountered in the expansion of a
           macro (including the case where the macro is expanded by an
           #if directive).  Such usage is not portable.  This warning is
           also enabled by -Wpedantic and -Wextra.

           Warn about macros defined in the main file that are unused.
           A macro is used if it is expanded or tested for existence at
           least once.  The preprocessor also warns if the macro has not
           been used at the time it is redefined or undefined.

           Built-in macros, macros defined on the command line, and
           macros defined in include files are not warned about.

           Note: If a macro is actually used, but only used in skipped
           conditional blocks, then the preprocessor reports it as
           unused.  To avoid the warning in such a case, you might
           improve the scope of the macro's definition by, for example,
           moving it into the first skipped block.  Alternatively, you
           could provide a dummy use with something like:

                   #if defined the_macro_causing_the_warning

           Do not warn whenever an "#else" or an "#endif" are followed
           by text.  This sometimes happens in older programs with code
           of the form

                   #if FOO
                   #else FOO
                   #endif FOO

           The second and third "FOO" should be in comments.  This
           warning is on by default.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       This section describes the environment variables that affect how
       CPP operates.  You can use them to specify directories or
       prefixes to use when searching for include files, or to control
       dependency output.

       Note that you can also specify places to search using options
       such as -I, and control dependency output with options like -M.
       These take precedence over environment variables, which in turn
       take precedence over the configuration of GCC.

           Each variable's value is a list of directories separated by a
           special character, much like PATH, in which to look for
           header files.  The special character, "PATH_SEPARATOR", is
           target-dependent and determined at GCC build time.  For
           Microsoft Windows-based targets it is a semicolon, and for
           almost all other targets it is a colon.

           CPATH specifies a list of directories to be searched as if
           specified with -I, but after any paths given with -I options
           on the command line.  This environment variable is used
           regardless of which language is being preprocessed.

           The remaining environment variables apply only when
           preprocessing the particular language indicated.  Each
           specifies a list of directories to be searched as if
           specified with -isystem, but after any paths given with
           -isystem options on the command line.

           In all these variables, an empty element instructs the
           compiler to search its current working directory.  Empty
           elements can appear at the beginning or end of a path.  For
           instance, if the value of CPATH is ":/special/include", that
           has the same effect as -I. -I/special/include.

           If this variable is set, its value specifies how to output
           dependencies for Make based on the non-system header files
           processed by the compiler.  System header files are ignored
           in the dependency output.

           The value of DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT can be just a file name, in
           which case the Make rules are written to that file, guessing
           the target name from the source file name.  Or the value can
           have the form file target, in which case the rules are
           written to file file using target as the target name.

           In other words, this environment variable is equivalent to
           combining the options -MM and -MF, with an optional -MT
           switch too.

           This variable is the same as DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT (see above),
           except that system header files are not ignored, so it
           implies -M rather than -MM.  However, the dependence on the
           main input file is omitted.

           If this variable is set, its value specifies a UNIX timestamp
           to be used in replacement of the current date and time in the
           "__DATE__" and "__TIME__" macros, so that the embedded
           timestamps become reproducible.

           The value of SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH must be a UNIX timestamp,
           defined as the number of seconds (excluding leap seconds)
           since 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 represented in ASCII; identical to
           the output of @command{date +%s} on GNU/Linux and other
           systems that support the %s extension in the "date" command.

           The value should be a known timestamp such as the last
           modification time of the source or package and it should be
           set by the build process.

SEE ALSO         top

       gpl(7), gfdl(7), fsf-funding(7), gcc(1), and the Info entries for
       cpp and gcc.

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright (c) 1987-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
       document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
       Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
       Foundation.  A copy of the license is included in the man page
       gfdl(7).  This manual contains no Invariant Sections.  The Front-
       Cover Texts are (a) (see below), and the Back-Cover Texts are (b)
       (see below).

       (a) The FSF's Front-Cover Text is:

            A GNU Manual

       (b) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is:

            You have freedom to copy and modify this GNU Manual, like GNU
            software.  Copies published by the Free Software Foundation raise
            funds for GNU development.

COLOPHON         top

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gcc-9.5.0                      2022-05-27                         CPP(1)

Pages that refer to this page: pmcpp(1)pmgenmap(1)suffixes(7)