git-commit-tree(1) — Linux manual page


GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)             Git Manual             GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)

NAME         top

       git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object

SYNOPSIS         top

       git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
       git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
                         [(-F <file>)...] <tree>

DESCRIPTION         top

       This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See
       git-commit(1) instead.

       Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and
       emits the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read
       from the standard input, unless -m or -F options are given.

       The -m and -F options can be given any number of times, in any
       order. The commit log message will be composed in the order in
       which the options are given.

       A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one
       parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent
       makes the commit a merge between several lines of history.
       Initial (root) commits have no parents.

       While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
       directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains
       how to get there.

       Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while
       Git doesn’t care where you save the note about that state, in
       practice we tend to just write the result to the file that is
       pointed at by .git/HEAD, so that we can always see what the last
       committed state was.

OPTIONS         top

           An existing tree object.

       -p <parent>
           Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object.

       -m <message>
           A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more
           than once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.

       -F <file>
           Read the commit log message from the given file. Use - to
           read from the standard input. This can be given more than
           once and the content of each file becomes its own paragraph.

       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>], --no-gpg-sign
           GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is optional and defaults
           to the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to
           the option without a space.  --no-gpg-sign is useful to
           countermand a --gpg-sign option given earlier on the command


       A commit encapsulates:

       •   all parent object ids

       •   author name, email and date

       •   committer name and email and the commit time.

       A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not
       provided via "<" redirection, git commit-tree will just wait for
       one to be entered and terminated with ^D.

DATE FORMATS         top

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables
       support the following date formats:

       Git internal format
           It is <unix-timestamp> <time-zone-offset>, where
           <unix-timestamp> is the number of seconds since the UNIX
           epoch.  <time-zone-offset> is a positive or negative offset
           from UTC. For example CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for
           example Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
           2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a space instead of
           the T character as well. Fractional parts of a second will be
           ignored, for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13.019 will be treated
           as 2005-04-07T22:13:13.

               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following
               formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

DISCUSSION         top

       Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.

       •   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences
           of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core level.

       •   Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This
           applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well
           as path names in command line arguments, environment
           variables and config files (.git/config (see git-config(1)),
           gitignore(5), gitattributes(5) and gitmodules(5)).

           Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
           sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
           conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using
           non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and
           file systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings.
           However, repositories created on such systems will not work
           properly on UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows)
           and vice versa. Additionally, many Git-based tools simply
           assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display other
           encodings correctly.

       •   Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
           extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
           ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC
           and CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x,
           CP9xx etc.).

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in
       UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force
       UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project
       find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not
       forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1. git commit and git commit-tree issue a warning if the commit
           log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF-8
           string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy
           encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitEncoding
           in .git/config file, like this:

                       commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the
           value of i18n.commitEncoding in their encoding header. This
           is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of this
           header implies that the commit log message is encoded in

        2. git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding
           header of a commit object, and try to re-code the log message
           into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the
           desired output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in
           .git/config file, like this:

                       logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
           i18n.commitEncoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log
       message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object
       level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible

FILES         top


SEE ALSO         top

       git-write-tree(1) git-commit(1)

GIT         top

       Part of the git(1) suite

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the git (Git distributed version control
       system) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, see ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
       from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2023-12-22.  (At that time,
       the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2023-12-20.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

Git         2023-12-20             GIT-COMMIT-TREE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: git(1)git-commit(1)git-filter-branch(1)git-merge-tree(1)git-var(1)