tr(1) — Linux manual page


TR(1)                         User Commands                        TR(1)

NAME         top

       tr - translate or delete characters

SYNOPSIS         top

       tr [OPTION]... STRING1 [STRING2]

DESCRIPTION         top

       Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input,
       writing to standard output.  STRING1 and STRING2 specify arrays
       of characters ARRAY1 and ARRAY2 that control the action.

       -c, -C, --complement
              use the complement of ARRAY1

       -d, --delete
              delete characters in ARRAY1, do not translate

       -s, --squeeze-repeats
              replace each sequence of a repeated character that is
              listed in the last specified ARRAY, with a single
              occurrence of that character

       -t, --truncate-set1
              first truncate ARRAY1 to length of ARRAY2

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       ARRAYs are specified as strings of characters.  Most represent
       themselves.  Interpreted sequences are:

       \NNN   character with octal value NNN (1 to 3 octal digits)

       \\     backslash

       \a     audible BEL

       \b     backspace

       \f     form feed

       \n     new line

       \r     return

       \t     horizontal tab

       \v     vertical tab

              all characters from CHAR1 to CHAR2 in ascending order

              in ARRAY2, copies of CHAR until length of ARRAY1

              REPEAT copies of CHAR, REPEAT octal if starting with 0

              all letters and digits

              all letters

              all horizontal whitespace

              all control characters

              all digits

              all printable characters, not including space

              all lower case letters

              all printable characters, including space

              all punctuation characters

              all horizontal or vertical whitespace

              all upper case letters

              all hexadecimal digits

              all characters which are equivalent to CHAR

       Translation occurs if -d is not given and both STRING1 and
       STRING2 appear.  -t is only significant when translating.  ARRAY2
       is extended to length of ARRAY1 by repeating its last character
       as necessary.  Excess characters of ARRAY2 are ignored.
       Character classes expand in unspecified order; while translating,
       [:lower:] and [:upper:] may be used in pairs to specify case
       conversion.  Squeezing occurs after translation or deletion.

BUGS         top

       Full support is available only for safe single-byte locales, in
       which every possible input byte represents a single character.
       The C locale is safe in GNU systems, so you can avoid this issue
       in the shell by running LC_ALL=C tr instead of plain tr.

AUTHOR         top

       Written by Jim Meyering.

REPORTING BUGS         top

       GNU coreutils online help:
       Report any translation bugs to

COPYRIGHT         top

       Copyright © 2023 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:
       GNU GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute
       it.  There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO         top

       Full documentation <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) tr invocation'

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the coreutils (basic file, shell and text
       manipulation utilities) project.  Information about the project
       can be found at ⟨⟩.  If you
       have a bug report for this manual page, see
       ⟨⟩.  This page was obtained
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       ⟨⟩ on 2023-12-22.  If you
       discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page,
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       manual page), send a mail to

GNU coreutils 9.4              August 2023                         TR(1)

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