ip(8) — Linux manual page


IP(8)                             Linux                            IP(8)

NAME         top

       ip - show / manipulate routing, network devices, interfaces and

SYNOPSIS         top

       ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help }

       ip [ -force ] -batch filename

       OBJECT := { link | address | addrlabel | route | rule | neigh |
               ntable | tunnel | tuntap | maddress | mroute | mrule |
               monitor | xfrm | netns | l2tp | tcp_metrics | token |
               macsec | vrf | mptcp | ioam | stats }

       OPTIONS := { -V[ersion] | -h[uman-readable] | -s[tatistics] |
               -d[etails] | -r[esolve] | -iec | -f[amily] { inet | inet6
               | link } | -4 | -6 | -B | -0 | -l[oops] { maximum-addr-
               flush-attempts } | -o[neline] | -rc[vbuf] [size] |
               -t[imestamp] | -ts[hort] | -n[etns] name | -N[umeric] |
               -a[ll] | -c[olor] | -br[ief] | -j[son] | -p[retty] }

OPTIONS         top

       -V, -Version
              Print the version of the ip utility and exit.

       -h, -human, -human-readable
              output statistics with human readable values followed by

       -b, -batch <FILENAME>
              Read commands from provided file or standard input and
              invoke them.  First failure will cause termination of ip.

       -force Don't terminate ip on errors in batch mode.  If there were
              any errors during execution of the commands, the
              application return code will be non zero.

       -s, -stats, -statistics
              Output more information. If the option appears twice or
              more, the amount of information increases.  As a rule, the
              information is statistics or some time values.

       -d, -details
              Output more detailed information.

       -l, -loops <COUNT>
              Specify maximum number of loops the 'ip address flush'
              logic will attempt before giving up. The default is 10.
              Zero (0) means loop until all addresses are removed.

       -f, -family <FAMILY>
              Specifies the protocol family to use. The protocol family
              identifier can be one of inet, inet6, bridge, mpls or
              link.  If this option is not present, the protocol family
              is guessed from other arguments. If the rest of the
              command line does not give enough information to guess the
              family, ip falls back to the default one, usually inet or
              any.  link is a special family identifier meaning that no
              networking protocol is involved.

       -4     shortcut for -family inet.

       -6     shortcut for -family inet6.

       -B     shortcut for -family bridge.

       -M     shortcut for -family mpls.

       -0     shortcut for -family link.

       -o, -oneline
              output each record on a single line, replacing line feeds
              with the '\' character. This is convenient when you want
              to count records with wc(1) or to grep(1) the output.

       -r, -resolve
              use the system's name resolver to print DNS names instead
              of host addresses.

       -n, -netns <NETNS>
              switches ip to the specified network namespace NETNS.
              Actually it just simplifies executing of:

              ip netns exec NETNS ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help


              ip -n[etns] NETNS [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help }

       -N, -Numeric
              Print the number of protocol, scope, dsfield, etc directly
              instead of converting it to human readable name.

       -a, -all
              executes specified command over all objects, it depends if
              command supports this option.

              Configure color output. If parameter is omitted or always,
              color output is enabled regardless of stdout state. If
              parameter is auto, stdout is checked to be a terminal
              before enabling color output. If parameter is never, color
              output is disabled. If specified multiple times, the last
              one takes precedence. This flag is ignored if -json is
              also given.

              Used color palette can be influenced by COLORFGBG
              environment variable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       -t, -timestamp
              display current time when using monitor option.

       -ts, -tshort
              Like -timestamp, but use shorter format.

       -rc, -rcvbuf<SIZE>
              Set the netlink socket receive buffer size, defaults to

       -iec   print human readable rates in IEC units (e.g. 1Ki = 1024).

       -br, -brief
              Print only basic information in a tabular format for
              better readability. This option is currently only
              supported by ip addr show , ip link show & ip neigh show

       -j, -json
              Output results in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON).

       -p, -pretty
              The default JSON format is compact and more efficient to
              parse but hard for most users to read.  This flag adds
              indentation for readability.

       -echo  Request the kernel to send the applied configuration back.

IP - COMMAND SYNTAX         top

              - protocol (IP or IPv6) address on a device.

              - label configuration for protocol address selection.

       ioam   - manage IOAM namespaces and IOAM schemas.

       l2tp   - tunnel ethernet over IP (L2TPv3).

       link   - network device.

              - multicast address.

              - watch for netlink messages.

       mptcp  - manage MPTCP path manager.

       mroute - multicast routing cache entry.

       mrule  - rule in multicast routing policy database.

              - manage ARP or NDISC cache entries.

       netns  - manage network namespaces.

       ntable - manage the neighbor cache's operation.

       route  - routing table entry.

       rule   - rule in routing policy database.

       stats  - manage and show interface statistics.

              - manage TCP Metrics

       token  - manage tokenized interface identifiers.

       tunnel - tunnel over IP.

       tuntap - manage TUN/TAP devices.

       vrf    - manage virtual routing and forwarding devices.

       xfrm   - manage IPSec policies.

       The names of all objects may be written in full or abbreviated
       form, for example address can be abbreviated as addr or just a.

       Specifies the action to perform on the object.  The set of
       possible actions depends on the object type.  As a rule, it is
       possible to add, delete and show (or list ) objects, but some
       objects do not allow all of these operations or have some
       additional commands. The help command is available for all
       objects. It prints out a list of available commands and argument
       syntax conventions.

       If no command is given, some default command is assumed.  Usually
       it is list or, if the objects of this class cannot be listed,

ENVIRONMENT         top

              If set, it's value is used for detection whether
              background is dark or light and use contrast colors for

              COLORFGBG environment variable usually contains either two
              or three values separated by semicolons; we want the last
              value in either case.  If this value is 0-6 or 8, chose
              colors suitable for dark background:

              COLORFGBG=";0" ip -c a

EXIT STATUS         top

       Exit status is 0 if command was successful, and 1 if there is a
       syntax error.  If an error was reported by the kernel exit status
       is 2.

EXAMPLES         top

       ip addr
           Shows addresses assigned to all network interfaces.

       ip neigh
           Shows the current neighbour table in kernel.

       ip link set x up
           Bring up interface x.

       ip link set x down
           Bring down interface x.

       ip route
           Show table routes.

HISTORY         top

       ip was written by Alexey N. Kuznetsov and added in Linux 2.2.

SEE ALSO         top

       ip-address(8), ip-addrlabel(8), ip-ioam(8), ip-l2tp(8),
       ip-link(8), ip-maddress(8), ip-monitor(8), ip-mptcp(8),
       ip-mroute(8), ip-neighbour(8), ip-netns(8), ip-ntable(8),
       ip-route(8), ip-rule(8), ip-stats(8) ip-tcp_metrics(8),
       ip-token(8), ip-tunnel(8), ip-vrf(8), ip-xfrm(8)
       IP Command reference ip-cref.ps

REPORTING BUGS         top

       Report any bugs to the Network Developers mailing list
       <netdev@vger.kernel.org> where the development and maintenance is
       primarily done.  You do not have to be subscribed to the list to
       send a message there.

AUTHOR         top

       Original Manpage by Michail Litvak <mci@owl.openwall.com>

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the iproute2 (utilities for controlling
       TCP/IP networking and traffic) project.  Information about the
       project can be found at 
       If you have a bug report for this manual page, send it to
       netdev@vger.kernel.org, shemminger@osdl.org.  This page was
       obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/network/iproute2/iproute2.git⟩ on
       2023-12-22.  (At that time, the date of the most recent commit
       that was found in the repository was 2023-12-20.)  If you
       discover any rendering problems in this HTML version of the page,
       or you believe there is a better or more up-to-date source for
       the page, or you have corrections or improvements to the
       information in this COLOPHON (which is not part of the original
       manual page), send a mail to man-pages@man7.org

iproute2                       20 Dec 2011                         IP(8)

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