systemd-analyze(1) — Linux manual page


SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)           systemd-analyze          SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

NAME         top

       systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager

SYNOPSIS         top

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump [PATTERN...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [>file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-files

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] exit-status [STATUS...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] capability [CAPABILITY...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] condition CONDITION...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] filesystems [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPEC...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timestamp TIMESTAMP...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] compare-versions VERSION1 [OP]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILE...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] inspect-elf FILE...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] malloc [D-BUS SERVICE...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] fdstore [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] image-policy POLICY...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] pcrs [PCR...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] srk > FILE

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] architectures [NAME...]

DESCRIPTION         top

       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up
       performance statistics and retrieve other state and tracing
       information from the system and service manager, and to verify
       the correctness of unit files. It is also used to access special
       functions useful for advanced system manager debugging.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

   systemd-analyze time
       This command prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace
       has been reached, the time spent in the initrd before normal
       system userspace has been reached, and the time normal system
       userspace took to initialize. Note that these measurements simply
       measure the time passed up to the point where all system services
       have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished
       initialization or the disk is idle.

       Example 1. Show how long the boot took

           # in a container
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 296ms (userspace)
  reached after 275ms in userspace

           # on a real machine
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 2.584s (kernel) + 19.176s (initrd) + 47.847s (userspace) = 1min 9.608s
  reached after 47.820s in userspace

   systemd-analyze blame
       This command prints a list of all running units, ordered by the
       time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
       optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading
       as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because
       it waits for the initialization of another service to complete.
       Also note: systemd-analyze blame doesn't display results for
       services with Type=simple, because systemd considers such
       services to be started immediately, hence no measurement of the
       initialization delays can be done. Also note that this command
       only shows the time units took for starting up, it does not show
       how long unit jobs spent in the execution queue. In particular it
       shows the time units spent in "activating" state, which is not
       defined for units such as device units that transition directly
       from "inactive" to "active". This command hence gives an
       impression of the performance of program code, but cannot
       accurately reflect latency introduced by waiting for hardware and
       similar events.

       Example 2. Show which units took the most time during boot

           $ systemd-analyze blame
                    32.875s pmlogger.service
                    20.905s systemd-networkd-wait-online.service
                    13.299s dev-vda1.device
                       23ms sysroot.mount
                       11ms initrd-udevadm-cleanup-db.service
                        3ms sys-kernel-config.mount

   systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]
       This command prints a tree of the time-critical chain of units
       (for each of the specified UNITs or for the default target
       otherwise). The time after the unit is active or started is
       printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to start
       is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
       misleading as the initialization of services might depend on
       socket activation and because of the parallel execution of units.
       Also, similarly to the blame command, this only takes into
       account the time units spent in "activating" state, and hence
       does not cover units that never went through an "activating"
       state (such as device units that transition directly from
       "inactive" to "active"). Moreover it does not show information on
       jobs (and in particular not jobs that timed out).

       Example 3. systemd-analyze critical-chain

           $ systemd-analyze critical-chain
           └─pmie.service @35.968s +548ms
             └─pmcd.service @33.715s +2.247s
               └─ @33.712s
                 └─systemd-networkd-wait-online.service @12.804s +20.905s
                   └─systemd-networkd.service @11.109s +1.690s
                     └─systemd-udevd.service @9.201s +1.904s
                       └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service @7.306s +1.776s
                         └─kmod-static-nodes.service @6.976s +177ms

   systemd-analyze dump [pattern...]
       Without any parameter, this command outputs a (usually very long)
       human-readable serialization of the complete service manager
       state. Optional glob pattern may be specified, causing the output
       to be limited to units whose names match one of the patterns. The
       output format is subject to change without notice and should not
       be parsed by applications. This command is rate limited for
       unprivileged users.

       Example 4. Show the internal state of user manager

           $ systemd-analyze --user dump
           Timestamp userspace: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           -> Unit proc-timer_list.mount:
                   Description: /proc/timer_list
           -> Unit
                   Description: Main user target

   systemd-analyze malloc [D-Bus service...]
       This command can be used to request the output of the internal
       memory state (as returned by malloc_info(3)) of a D-Bus service.
       If no service is specified, the query will be sent to
       org.freedesktop.systemd1 (the system or user service manager).
       The output format is not guaranteed to be stable and should not
       be parsed by applications.

       The service must implement the org.freedesktop.MemoryAllocation1
       interface. In the systemd suite, it is currently only implemented
       by the manager.

   systemd-analyze plot
       This command prints either an SVG graphic, detailing which system
       services have been started at what time, highlighting the time
       they spent on initialization, or the raw time data in JSON or
       table format.

       Example 5. Plot a bootchart

           $ systemd-analyze plot >bootup.svg
           $ eog bootup.svg&

       Note that this plot is based on the most recent per-unit timing
       data of loaded units. This means that if a unit gets started,
       then stopped and then started again the information shown will
       cover the most recent start cycle, not the first one. Thus it's
       recommended to consult this information only shortly after boot,
       so that this distinction doesn't matter. Moreover, units that are
       not referenced by any other unit through a dependency might be
       unloaded by the service manager once they terminate (and did not
       fail). Such units will not show up in the plot.

   systemd-analyze dot [pattern...]
       This command generates textual dependency graph description in
       dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool.
       Use a command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg
       >systemd.svg to generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless
       --order or --require is passed, the generated graph will show
       both ordering and requirement dependencies. Optional pattern
       globbing style specifications (e.g.  *.target) may be given at
       the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of
       these patterns match either the origin or destination node.

       Example 6. Plot all dependencies of any unit whose name starts
       with "avahi-daemon"

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg >avahi.svg
           $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 7. Plot the dependencies between all known target units

           $ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' \
                 | dot -Tsvg >targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

   systemd-analyze unit-paths
       This command outputs a list of all directories from which unit
       files, .d overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be
       loaded. Combine with --user to retrieve the list for the user
       manager instance, and --global for the global configuration of
       user manager instances.

       Example 8. Show all paths for generated units

           $ systemd-analyze unit-paths | grep '^/run'

       Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into
       systemd-analyze itself, and does not communicate with the running
       manager. Use

           systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value

       to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty
       directories omitted.

   systemd-analyze exit-status [STATUS...]
       This command prints a list of exit statuses along with their
       "class", i.e. the source of the definition (one of "glibc",
       "systemd", "LSB", or "BSD"), see the Process Exit Codes section
       in systemd.exec(5). If no additional arguments are specified, all
       known statuses are shown. Otherwise, only the definitions for the
       specified codes are shown.

       Example 9. Show some example exit status names

           $ systemd-analyze exit-status 0 1 {63..65}
           NAME    STATUS CLASS
           SUCCESS 0      glibc
           FAILURE 1      glibc
           -       63     -
           USAGE   64     BSD
           DATAERR 65     BSD

   systemd-analyze capability [CAPABILITY...]
       This command prints a list of Linux capabilities along with their
       numeric IDs. See capabilities(7) for details. If no argument is
       specified the full list of capabilities known to the service
       manager and the kernel is shown. Capabilities defined by the
       kernel but not known to the service manager are shown as
       "cap_???". Optionally, if arguments are specified they may refer
       to specific cabilities by name or numeric ID, in which case only
       the indicated capabilities are shown in the table.

       Example 10. Show some example capability names

           $ systemd-analyze capability 0 1 {30..32}
           NAME              NUMBER
           cap_chown              0
           cap_dac_override       1
           cap_audit_control     30
           cap_setfcap           31
           cap_mac_override      32

   systemd-analyze condition CONDITION...
       This command will evaluate Condition*=...  and Assert*=...
       assignments, and print their values, and the resulting value of
       the combined condition set. See systemd.unit(5) for a list of
       available conditions and asserts.

       Example 11. Evaluate conditions that check kernel versions

           $ systemd-analyze condition 'ConditionKernelVersion = ! <4.0' \
                   'ConditionKernelVersion = >=5.1' \
                   'ConditionACPower=|false' \
                   'ConditionArchitecture=|!arm' \
           test.service: AssertPathExists=/etc/os-release succeeded.
           Asserts succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionArchitecture=|!arm succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionACPower=|false failed.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=>=5.1 succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=!<4.0 succeeded.
           Conditions succeeded.

   systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]
       This command will list system calls contained in the specified
       system call set SET, or all known sets if no sets are specified.
       Argument SET must include the "@" prefix.

   systemd-analyze filesystems [SET...]
       This command will list filesystems in the specified filesystem
       set SET, or all known sets if no sets are specified. Argument SET
       must include the "@" prefix.

   systemd-analyze calendar EXPRESSION...
       This command will parse and normalize repetitive calendar time
       events, and will calculate when they elapse next. This takes the
       same input as the OnCalendar= setting in systemd.timer(5),
       following the syntax described in systemd.time(7). By default,
       only the next time the calendar expression will elapse is shown;
       use --iterations= to show the specified number of next times the
       expression elapses. Each time the expression elapses forms a
       timestamp, see the timestamp verb below.

       Example 12. Show leap days in the near future

           $ systemd-analyze calendar --iterations=5 '*-2-29 0:0:0'
             Original form: *-2-29 0:0:0
           Normalized form: *-02-29 00:00:00
               Next elapse: Sat 2020-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 11 months 15 days left
                  Iter. #2: Thu 2024-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 4 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #3: Tue 2028-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 8 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #4: Sun 2032-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 12 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #5: Fri 2036-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 16 years 11 months left

   systemd-analyze timestamp TIMESTAMP...
       This command parses a timestamp (i.e. a single point in time) and
       outputs the normalized form and the difference between this
       timestamp and now. The timestamp should adhere to the syntax
       documented in systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIMESTAMPS".

       Example 13. Show parsing of timestamps

           $ systemd-analyze timestamp yesterday now tomorrow
             Original form: yesterday
           Normalized form: Mon 2019-05-20 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Sun 2019-05-19 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15583032000
                  From now: 1 day 9h ago

             Original form: now
           Normalized form: Tue 2019-05-21 09:48:39 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 07:48:39 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @1558424919.659757
                  From now: 43us ago

             Original form: tomorrow
           Normalized form: Wed 2019-05-22 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15584760000
                  From now: 14h left

   systemd-analyze timespan EXPRESSION...
       This command parses a time span (i.e. a difference between two
       timestamps) and outputs the normalized form and the equivalent
       value in microseconds. The time span should adhere to the syntax
       documented in systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIME SPANS".
       Values without units are parsed as seconds.

       Example 14. Show parsing of timespans

           $ systemd-analyze timespan 1s 300s '1year 0.000001s'
           Original: 1s
                 μs: 1000000
              Human: 1s

           Original: 300s
                 μs: 300000000
              Human: 5min

           Original: 1year 0.000001s
                 μs: 31557600000001
              Human: 1y 1us

   systemd-analyze cat-config NAME|PATH...
       This command is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on config
       files. It will copy the contents of a config file and any
       drop-ins to standard output, using the usual systemd set of
       directories and rules for precedence. Each argument must be
       either an absolute path including the prefix (such as
       /etc/systemd/logind.conf or /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf), or a
       name relative to the prefix (such as systemd/logind.conf).

       Example 15. Showing logind configuration

           $ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf

           # /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf.d/20-test.conf
           ... some override from another package

           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf.d/50-override.conf
           ... some administrator override

   systemd-analyze compare-versions VERSION1 [OP] VERSION2
       This command has two distinct modes of operation, depending on
       whether the operator OP is specified.

       In the first mode — when OP is not specified — it will compare
       the two version strings and print either "VERSION1 < VERSION2",
       or "VERSION1 == VERSION2", or "VERSION1 > VERSION2" as

       The exit status is 0 if the versions are equal, 11 if the version
       of the right is smaller, and 12 if the version of the left is
       smaller. (This matches the convention used by rpmdev-vercmp.)

       In the second mode — when OP is specified — it will compare the
       two version strings using the operation OP and return 0 (success)
       if they condition is satisfied, and 1 (failure) otherwise.  OP
       may be lt, le, eq, ne, ge, gt. In this mode, no output is
       printed. (This matches the convention used by dpkg(1)

       Example 16. Compare versions of a package

           $ systemd-analyze compare-versions systemd-250~rc1.fc36.aarch64 systemd-251.fc36.aarch64
           systemd-250~rc1.fc36.aarch64 < systemd-251.fc36.aarch64
           $ echo $?

           $ systemd-analyze compare-versions 1 lt 2; echo $?
           $ systemd-analyze compare-versions 1 ge 2; echo $?

   systemd-analyze verify FILE...
       This command will load unit files and print warnings if any
       errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
       loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. A unit's
       name on disk can be overridden by specifying an alias after a
       colon; see below for an example. The full unit search path is
       formed by combining the directories for all command line
       arguments, and the usual unit load paths. The variable
       $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and may be used to replace or
       augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see
       systemd.unit(5). All units files present in the directories
       containing the command line arguments will be used in preference
       to the other paths.

       The following errors are currently detected:

       •   unknown sections and directives,

       •   missing dependencies which are required to start the given

       •   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the

       •   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found
           in the system or not executable.

       Example 17. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice


           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 18. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==

           ==> ./b.socket <==

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

       Example 19. Aliasing a unit

           $ cat /tmp/source
           Description=Hostname printer

           ExecStart=/usr/bin/echo %H

           $ systemd-analyze verify /tmp/source
           Failed to prepare filename /tmp/source: Invalid argument

           $ systemd-analyze verify /tmp/source:alias.service
           alias.service:7: Unknown key name 'MysteryKey' in section 'Service', ignoring.

   systemd-analyze security [UNIT...]
       This command analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of one
       or more specified service units. If at least one unit name is
       specified the security settings of the specified service units
       are inspected and a detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name
       is specified, all currently loaded, long-running service units
       are inspected and a terse table with results shown. The command
       checks for various security-related service settings, assigning
       each a numeric "exposure level" value, depending on how important
       a setting is. It then calculates an overall exposure level for
       the whole unit, which is an estimation in the range 0.0...10.0
       indicating how exposed a service is security-wise. High exposure
       levels indicate very little applied sandboxing. Low exposure
       levels indicate tight sandboxing and strongest security
       restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the per-service
       security features systemd itself implements. This means that any
       additional security mechanisms applied by the service code itself
       are not accounted for. The exposure level determined this way
       should not be misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means
       that there is no effective sandboxing applied by the service code
       itself, nor that the service is actually vulnerable to remote or
       local attacks. High exposure levels do indicate however that most
       likely the service might benefit from additional settings applied
       to them.

       Please note that many of the security and sandboxing settings
       individually can be circumvented — unless combined with others.
       For example, if a service retains the privilege to establish or
       undo mount points many of the sandboxing options can be undone by
       the service code itself. Due to that is essential that each
       service uses the most comprehensive and strict sandboxing and
       security settings possible. The tool will take into account some
       of these combinations and relationships between the settings, but
       not all. Also note that the security and sandboxing settings
       analyzed here only apply to the operations executed by the
       service code itself. If a service has access to an IPC system
       (such as D-Bus) it might request operations from other services
       that are not subject to the same restrictions. Any comprehensive
       security and sandboxing analysis is hence incomplete if the IPC
       access policy is not validated too.

       Example 20. Analyze systemd-logind.service

           $ systemd-analyze security --no-pager systemd-logind.service
             NAME                DESCRIPTION                              EXPOSURE
           ✗ PrivateNetwork=     Service has access to the host's network      0.5
           ✗ User=/DynamicUser=  Service runs as root user                     0.4
           ✗ DeviceAllow=        Service has no device ACL                     0.2
           ✓ IPAddressDeny=      Service blocks all IP address ranges
           → Overall exposure level for systemd-logind.service: 4.1 OK 🙂

   systemd-analyze inspect-elf FILE...
       This command will load the specified files, and if they are ELF
       objects (executables, libraries, core files, etc.) it will parse
       the embedded packaging metadata, if any, and print it in a table
       or json format. See the Packaging Metadata[1] documentation for
       more information.

       Example 21. Print information about a core file as JSON

           $ systemd-analyze inspect-elf --json=pretty \
                   "elfType" : "coredump",
                   "elfArchitecture" : "AMD x86-64",
                   "/home/bluca/git/fsverity-utils/fsverity" : {
                           "type" : "deb",
                           "name" : "fsverity-utils",
                           "version" : "1.3-1",
                           "buildId" : "7c895ecd2a271f93e96268f479fdc3c64a2ec4ee"
                   "/home/bluca/git/fsverity-utils/" : {
                           "type" : "deb",
                           "name" : "fsverity-utils",
                           "version" : "1.3-1",
                           "buildId" : "b5e428254abf14237b0ae70ed85fffbb98a78f88"

   systemd-analyze fdstore [UNIT...]
       Lists the current contents of the specified service unit's file
       descriptor store. This shows names, inode types, device numbers,
       inode numbers, paths and open modes of the open file descriptors.
       The specified units must have FileDescriptorStoreMax= enabled,
       see systemd.service(5) for details.

       Example 22. Table output

           $ systemd-analyze fdstore systemd-journald.service
           stored sock 0:8   4218620 -      socket:[4218620] ro
           stored sock 0:8   4213198 -      socket:[4213198] ro
           stored sock 0:8   4213190 -      socket:[4213190] ro

       Note: the "DEVNO" column refers to the major/minor numbers of the
       device node backing the file system the file descriptor's inode
       is on. The "RDEVNO" column refers to the major/minor numbers of
       the device node itself if the file descriptor refers to one.
       Compare with corresponding .st_dev and .st_rdev fields in struct
       stat (see stat(2) for details). The listed inode numbers in the
       "INODE" column are on the file system indicated by "DEVNO".

   systemd-analyze image-policy [POLICY...]
       This command analyzes the specified image policy string, as per
       systemd.image-policy(7). The policy is normalized and simplified.
       For each currently defined partition identifier (as per the
       Discoverable Partitions Specification[2]) the effect of the image
       policy string is shown in tabular form.

       Example 23. Example Output

           $ systemd-analyze image-policy swap=encrypted:usr=read-only-on+verity:root=encrypted
           Analyzing policy: root=encrypted:usr=verity+read-only-on:swap=encrypted
                  Long form: root=encrypted:usr=verity+read-only-on:swap=encrypted:=unused+absent

           PARTITION       MODE        READ-ONLY GROWFS
           root            encrypted   -         -
           usr             verity      yes       -
           home            ignore      -         -
           srv             ignore      -         -
           esp             ignore      -         -
           xbootldr        ignore      -         -
           swap            encrypted   -         -
           root-verity     ignore      -         -
           usr-verity      unprotected yes       -
           root-verity-sig ignore      -         -
           usr-verity-sig  ignore      -         -
           tmp             ignore      -         -
           var             ignore      -         -
           default         ignore      -         -

   systemd-analyze pcrs [PCR...]
       This command shows the known TPM2 PCRs along with their
       identifying names and current values.

       Example 24. Example Output

           $ systemd-analyze pcrs
           NR NAME                SHA256
            0 platform-code       bcd2eb527108bbb1f5528409bcbe310aa9b74f687854cc5857605993f3d9eb11
            1 platform-config     b60622856eb7ce52637b80f30a520e6e87c347daa679f3335f4f1a600681bb01
            2 external-code       1471262403e9a62f9c392941300b4807fbdb6f0bfdd50abfab752732087017dd
            3 external-config     3d458cfe55cc03ea1f443f1562beec8df51c75e14a9fcf9a7234a13f198e7969
            4 boot-loader-code    939f7fa1458e1f7ce968874d908e524fc0debf890383d355e4ce347b7b78a95c
            5 boot-loader-config  864c61c5ea5ecbdb6951e6cb6d9c1f4b4eac79772f7fe13b8bece569d83d3768
            6 -                   3d458cfe55cc03ea1f443f1562beec8df51c75e14a9fcf9a7234a13f198e7969
            7 secure-boot-policy  9c905bd9b9891bfb889b90a54c4b537b889cfa817c4389cc25754823a9443255
            8 -                   0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
            9 kernel-initrd       9caa29b128113ef42aa53d421f03437be57211e5ebafc0fa8b5d4514ee37ff0c
           10 ima                 5ea9e3dab53eb6b483b6ec9e3b2c712bea66bca1b155637841216e0094387400
           11 kernel-boot         0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
           12 kernel-config       627ffa4b405e911902fe1f1a8b0164693b31acab04f805f15bccfe2209c7eace
           13 sysexts             0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
           14 shim-policy         0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
           15 system-identity     0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
           16 debug               0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
           17 -                   ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
           18 -                   ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
           19 -                   ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
           20 -                   ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
           21 -                   ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
           22 -                   ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
           23 application-support 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

   systemd-analyze srk > FILE
       This command reads the Storage Root Key (SRK) from the TPM2
       device, and writes it in marshalled TPM2B_PUBLIC format to
       stdout. Example:

           systemd-analyze srk > srk.tpm2b_public

   systemd-analyze architectures [NAME...]
       Lists all known CPU architectures, and which ones are native. The
       listed architecture names are those ConditionArchitecture=
       supports, see systemd.unit(5) for details. If architecture names
       are specified only those specified are listed.

       Example 25. Table output

           $ systemd-analyze architectures
           NAME        SUPPORT
           alpha       foreign
           arc         foreign
           arc-be      foreign
           arm         foreign
           arm64       foreign
           sparc       foreign
           sparc64     foreign
           tilegx      foreign
           x86         secondary
           x86-64      native

OPTIONS         top

       The following options are understood:

           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied

           Added in version 209.

           Operates on the user systemd instance.

           Added in version 186.

           Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd

           Added in version 238.

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above),
           selects which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph.
           If --order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or
           Before= are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies
           of type Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are
           shown. If neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all
           these types.

           Added in version 198.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above),
           this selects which relationships are shown in the dependency
           graph. Both options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument,
           which will be matched against the left-hand and the
           right-hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the
           unit name must match one of the values. When tests for both
           sides of the relation are present, a relation must pass both
           tests to be shown. When patterns are also specified as
           positional arguments, they must match at least one side of
           the relation. In other words, patterns specified with those
           two options will trim the list of edges matched by the
           positional arguments, if any are given, and fully determine
           the list of edges shown otherwise.

           Added in version 201.

           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
           above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier,
           than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan
           is seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g.

           Added in version 203.

           Do not invoke man(1) to verify the existence of man pages
           listed in Documentation=.

           Added in version 235.

           Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some
           generators require root privileges. Under a normal user,
           running with generators enabled will generally result in some

           Added in version 235.

           Control verification of units and their dependencies and
           whether systemd-analyze verify exits with a non-zero process
           exit status or not. With yes, return a non-zero process exit
           status when warnings arise during verification of either the
           specified unit or any of its associated dependencies. With
           no, return a non-zero process exit status when warnings arise
           during verification of only the specified unit. With one,
           return a non-zero process exit status when warnings arise
           during verification of either the specified unit or its
           immediate dependencies. If this option is not specified, zero
           is returned as the exit status regardless whether warnings
           arise during verification or not.

           Added in version 250.

           With cat-files and verify, operate on files underneath the
           specified root path PATH.

           Added in version 239.

           With cat-files and verify, operate on files inside the
           specified image path PATH.

           Added in version 250.

           Takes an image policy string as argument, as per
           systemd.image-policy(7). The policy is enforced when
           operating on the disk image specified via --image=, see
           above. If not specified defaults to the "*" policy, i.e. all
           recognized file systems in the image are used.

           With security, perform an offline security review of the
           specified unit files, i.e. does not have to rely on PID 1 to
           acquire security information for the files like the security
           verb when used by itself does. This means that --offline= can
           be used with --root= and --image= as well. If a unit's
           overall exposure level is above that set by --threshold=
           (default value is 100), --offline= will return an error.

           Added in version 250.

           With security --offline=, takes into consideration the
           specified portable profile when assessing unit settings. The
           profile can be passed by name, in which case the well-known
           system locations will be searched, or it can be the full path
           to a specific drop-in file.

           Added in version 250.

           With security, allow the user to set a custom value to
           compare the overall exposure level with, for the specified
           unit files. If a unit's overall exposure level, is greater
           than that set by the user, security will return an error.
           --threshold= can be used with --offline= as well and its
           default value is 100.

           Added in version 250.

           With security, allow the user to define a custom set of
           requirements formatted as a JSON file against which to
           compare the specified unit file(s) and determine their
           overall exposure level to security threats.

           Table 1. Accepted Assessment Test Identifiers
           │ Assessment Test Identifier                               │
           │ UserOrDynamicUser                                        │
           │ SupplementaryGroups                                      │
           │ PrivateMounts                                            │
           │ PrivateDevices                                           │
           │ PrivateTmp                                               │
           │ PrivateNetwork                                           │
           │ PrivateUsers                                             │
           │ ProtectControlGroups                                     │
           │ ProtectKernelModules                                     │
           │ ProtectKernelTunables                                    │
           │ ProtectKernelLogs                                        │
           │ ProtectClock                                             │
           │ ProtectHome                                              │
           │ ProtectHostname                                          │
           │ ProtectSystem                                            │
           │ RootDirectoryOrRootImage                                 │
           │ LockPersonality                                          │
           │ MemoryDenyWriteExecute                                   │
           │ NoNewPrivileges                                          │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_ADMIN                      │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SET_UID_GID_PCAP               │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_PTRACE                     │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_TIME                       │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_NET_ADMIN                      │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_RAWIO                      │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_MODULE                     │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_AUDIT                          │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYSLOG                         │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_NICE_RESOURCE              │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_MKNOD                          │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_CHOWN_FSETID_SETFCAP           │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_DAC_FOWNER_IPC_OWNER           │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_KILL                           │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE_BROADCAST_RAW │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_BOOT                       │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_MAC                            │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_LINUX_IMMUTABLE                │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_IPC_LOCK                       │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_CHROOT                     │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_BLOCK_SUSPEND                  │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_WAKE_ALARM                     │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_LEASE                          │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG                 │
           │ CapabilityBoundingSet_CAP_BPF                            │
           │ UMask                                                    │
           │ KeyringMode                                              │
           │ ProtectProc                                              │
           │ ProcSubset                                               │
           │ NotifyAccess                                             │
           │ RemoveIPC                                                │
           │ Delegate                                                 │
           │ RestrictRealtime                                         │
           │ RestrictSUIDSGID                                         │
           │ RestrictNamespaces_user                                  │
           │ RestrictNamespaces_mnt                                   │
           │ RestrictNamespaces_ipc                                   │
           │ RestrictNamespaces_pid                                   │
           │ RestrictNamespaces_cgroup                                │
           │ RestrictNamespaces_uts                                   │
           │ RestrictNamespaces_net                                   │
           │ RestrictAddressFamilies_AF_INET_INET6                    │
           │ RestrictAddressFamilies_AF_UNIX                          │
           │ RestrictAddressFamilies_AF_NETLINK                       │
           │ RestrictAddressFamilies_AF_PACKET                        │
           │ RestrictAddressFamilies_OTHER                            │
           │ SystemCallArchitectures                                  │
           │ SystemCallFilter_swap                                    │
           │ SystemCallFilter_obsolete                                │
           │ SystemCallFilter_clock                                   │
           │ SystemCallFilter_cpu_emulation                           │
           │ SystemCallFilter_debug                                   │
           │ SystemCallFilter_mount                                   │
           │ SystemCallFilter_module                                  │
           │ SystemCallFilter_raw_io                                  │
           │ SystemCallFilter_reboot                                  │
           │ SystemCallFilter_privileged                              │
           │ SystemCallFilter_resources                               │
           │ IPAddressDeny                                            │
           │ DeviceAllow                                              │
           │ AmbientCapabilities                                      │

           See example "JSON Policy" below.

           Added in version 250.

           With the security command, generate a JSON formatted output
           of the security analysis table. The format is a JSON array
           with objects containing the following fields: set which
           indicates if the setting has been enabled or not, name which
           is what is used to refer to the setting, json_field which is
           the JSON compatible identifier of the setting, description
           which is an outline of the setting state, and exposure which
           is a number in the range 0.0...10.0, where a higher value
           corresponds to a higher security threat. The JSON version of
           the table is printed to standard output. The MODE passed to
           the option can be one of three: off which is the default,
           pretty and short which respectively output a prettified or
           shorted JSON version of the security table. With the plot
           command, generate a JSON formatted output of the raw time
           data. The format is a JSON array with objects containing the
           following fields: name which is the unit name, activated
           which is the time after startup the service was activated,
           activating which is how long after startup the service was
           initially started, time which is how long the service took to
           activate from when it was initially started, deactivated
           which is the time after startup that the service was
           deactivated, deactivating which is the time after startup
           that the service was initially told to deactivate.

           Added in version 250.

           When used with the calendar command, show the specified
           number of iterations the specified calendar expression will
           elapse next. Defaults to 1.

           Added in version 242.

           When used with the calendar command, show next iterations
           relative to the specified point in time. If not specified
           defaults to the current time.

           Added in version 244.

           When used with the condition command, evaluate all the
           Condition*=...  and Assert*=...  assignments in the specified
           unit file. The full unit search path is formed by combining
           the directories for the specified unit with the usual unit
           load paths. The variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and
           may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set of unit
           load paths; see systemd.unit(5). All units files present in
           the directory containing the specified unit will be used in
           preference to the other paths.

           Added in version 250.

           When used with the plot command, the raw time data is output
           in a table.

           Added in version 253.

           When used with the plot command in combination with either
           --table or --json=, no legends or hints are included in the

           Added in version 253.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a
           username and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The
           hostname may optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is
           listening on, separated by ":", and then a container name,
           separated by "/", which connects directly to a specific
           container on the specified host. This will use SSH to talk to
           the remote machine manager instance. Container names may be
           enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses in

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container
           name to connect to, optionally prefixed by a user name to
           connect as and a separating "@" character. If the special
           string ".host" is used in place of the container name, a
           connection to the local system is made (which is useful to
           connect to a specific user's user bus: "--user
 "). If the "@" syntax is not used, the
           connection is made as root user. If the "@" syntax is used
           either the left hand side or the right hand side may be
           omitted (but not both) in which case the local user name and
           ".host" are implied.

           Suppress hints and other non-essential output.

           Added in version 250.

           With cat-config, only print the "interesting" parts of the
           configuration files, skipping comments and empty lines and
           section headers followed only by comments and empty lines.

           Added in version 255.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

           Print a short version string and exit.

           Do not pipe output into a pager.

EXIT STATUS         top

       For most commands, 0 is returned on success, and a non-zero
       failure code otherwise.

       With the verb compare-versions, in the two-argument form, 12, 0,
       11 is returned if the second version string is respectively
       larger, equal, or smaller to the first. In the three-argument
       form, 0 or 1 if the condition is respectively true or false.

ENVIRONMENT         top

           The maximum log level of emitted messages (messages with a
           higher log level, i.e. less important ones, will be
           suppressed). Either one of (in order of decreasing
           importance) emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info,
           debug, or an integer in the range 0...7. See syslog(3) for
           more information.

           A boolean. If true, messages written to the tty will be
           colored according to priority.

           This setting is only useful when messages are written
           directly to the terminal, because journalctl(1) and other
           tools that display logs will color messages based on the log
           level on their own.

           A boolean. If true, console log messages will be prefixed
           with a timestamp.

           This setting is only useful when messages are written
           directly to the terminal or a file, because journalctl(1) and
           other tools that display logs will attach timestamps based on
           the entry metadata on their own.

           A boolean. If true, messages will be prefixed with a filename
           and line number in the source code where the message

           Note that the log location is often attached as metadata to
           journal entries anyway. Including it directly in the message
           text can nevertheless be convenient when debugging programs.

           A boolean. If true, messages will be prefixed with the
           current numerical thread ID (TID).

           Note that the this information is attached as metadata to
           journal entries anyway. Including it directly in the message
           text can nevertheless be convenient when debugging programs.

           The destination for log messages. One of console (log to the
           attached tty), console-prefixed (log to the attached tty but
           with prefixes encoding the log level and "facility", see
           syslog(3), kmsg (log to the kernel circular log buffer),
           journal (log to the journal), journal-or-kmsg (log to the
           journal if available, and to kmsg otherwise), auto (determine
           the appropriate log target automatically, the default), null
           (disable log output).

           Whether to ratelimit kmsg or not. Takes a boolean. Defaults
           to "true". If disabled, systemd will not ratelimit messages
           written to kmsg.

           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER.
           If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of
           well-known pager implementations are tried in turn, including
           less(1) and more(1), until one is found. If no pager
           implementation is discovered no pager is invoked. Setting
           this environment variable to an empty string or the value
           "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

           Note: if $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set, $SYSTEMD_PAGER (as
           well as $PAGER) will be silently ignored.

           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           Users might want to change two options in particular:

               This option instructs the pager to exit immediately when
               Ctrl+C is pressed. To allow less to handle Ctrl+C itself
               to switch back to the pager command prompt, unset this

               If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and
               the pager that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored
               by the executable, and needs to be handled by the pager.

               This option instructs the pager to not send termcap
               initialization and deinitialization strings to the
               terminal. It is set by default to allow command output to
               remain visible in the terminal even after the pager
               exits. Nevertheless, this prevents some pager
               functionality from working, in particular paged output
               cannot be scrolled with the mouse.

           See less(1) for more discussion.

           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if
           the invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

           Takes a boolean argument. When true, the "secure" mode of the
           pager is enabled; if false, disabled. If $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE
           is not set at all, secure mode is enabled if the effective
           UID is not the same as the owner of the login session, see
           geteuid(2) and sd_pid_get_owner_uid(3). In secure mode,
           LESSSECURE=1 will be set when invoking the pager, and the
           pager shall disable commands that open or create new files or
           start new subprocesses. When $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set
           at all, pagers which are not known to implement secure mode
           will not be used. (Currently only less(1) implements secure

           Note: when commands are invoked with elevated privileges, for
           example under sudo(8) or pkexec(1), care must be taken to
           ensure that unintended interactive features are not enabled.
           "Secure" mode for the pager may be enabled automatically as
           describe above. Setting SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE=0 or not removing
           it from the inherited environment allows the user to invoke
           arbitrary commands. Note that if the $SYSTEMD_PAGER or $PAGER
           variables are to be honoured, $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE must be
           set too. It might be reasonable to completely disable the
           pager using --no-pager instead.

           Takes a boolean argument. When true, systemd and related
           utilities will use colors in their output, otherwise the
           output will be monochrome. Additionally, the variable can
           take one of the following special values: "16", "256" to
           restrict the use of colors to the base 16 or 256 ANSI colors,
           respectively. This can be specified to override the automatic
           decision based on $TERM and what the console is connected to.

           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether clickable links
           should be generated in the output for terminal emulators
           supporting this. This can be specified to override the
           decision that systemd makes based on $TERM and other

EXAMPLES         top

       Example 26. JSON Policy

       The JSON file passed as a path parameter to --security-policy=
       has a top-level JSON object, with keys being the assessment test
       identifiers mentioned above. The values in the file should be
       JSON objects with one or more of the following fields:
       description_na (string), description_good (string),
       description_bad (string), weight (unsigned integer), and range
       (unsigned integer). If any of these fields corresponding to a
       specific id of the unit file is missing from the JSON object, the
       default built-in field value corresponding to that same id is
       used for security analysis as default. The weight and range
       fields are used in determining the overall exposure level of the
       unit files: the value of each setting is assigned a badness
       score, which is multiplied by the policy weight and divided by
       the policy range to determine the overall exposure that the
       setting implies. The computed badness is summed across all
       settings in the unit file, normalized to the 1...100 range, and
       used to determine the overall exposure level of the unit. By
       allowing users to manipulate these fields, the 'security' verb
       gives them the option to decide for themself which ids are more
       important and hence should have a greater effect on the exposure
       level. A weight of "0" means the setting will not be checked.

               "description_good": "Service has no access to hardware devices",
               "description_bad": "Service potentially has access to hardware devices",
               "weight": 1000,
               "range": 1
               "description_good": "Service cannot install system mounts",
               "description_bad": "Service may install system mounts",
               "weight": 1000,
               "range": 1
               "description_good": "Service has no access to the host's network",
               "description_bad": "Service has access to the host's network",
               "weight": 2500,
               "range": 1
               "description_good": "Service has no access to other software's temporary files",
               "description_bad": "Service has access to other software's temporary files",
               "weight": 1000,
               "range": 1
               "description_good": "Service does not have access to other users",
               "description_bad": "Service has access to other users",
               "weight": 1000,
               "range": 1

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

NOTES         top

        1. Packaging Metadata

        2. Discoverable Partitions Specification

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service
       manager) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨⟩.  If you have
       a bug report for this manual page, see
       This page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨⟩ on 2023-12-22.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2023-12-22.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to

systemd 255                                           SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: systemd-cryptenroll(1)systemd-nspawn(1)org.freedesktop.systemd1(5)systemd.exec(5)systemd.service(5)systemd.unit(5)systemd.directives(7)systemd.index(7)systemd.time(7)