systemd-analyze(1) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXIT STATUS | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)           systemd-analyze          SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

NAME         top

       systemd-analyze - Analyze and debug system manager

SYNOPSIS         top

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [UNIT...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [>file.svg]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [PATTERN...] [>file.dot]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit-paths

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] exit-status [STATUS...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] capability [CAPABILITY...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] condition CONDITION...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall-filter [SET...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPEC...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timestamp TIMESTAMP...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat-config NAME|PATH...

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [FILE...]

       systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT...

DESCRIPTION         top

       systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up
       performance statistics and retrieve other state and tracing
       information from the system and service manager, and to verify
       the correctness of unit files. It is also used to access special
       functions useful for advanced system manager debugging.

       If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.

   systemd-analyze time
       This command prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace
       has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd)
       before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time
       normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these
       measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where
       all system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until
       they fully finished initialization or the disk is idle.

       Example 1. Show how long the boot took

           # in a container
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 296ms (userspace)
           multi-user.target reached after 275ms in userspace

           # on a real machine
           $ systemd-analyze time
           Startup finished in 2.584s (kernel) + 19.176s (initrd) + 47.847s (userspace) = 1min 9.608s
           multi-user.target reached after 47.820s in userspace

   systemd-analyze blame
       This command prints a list of all running units, ordered by the
       time they took to initialize. This information may be used to
       optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading
       as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because
       it waits for the initialization of another service to complete.
       Also note: systemd-analyze blame doesn't display results for
       services with Type=simple, because systemd considers such
       services to be started immediately, hence no measurement of the
       initialization delays can be done. Also note that this command
       only shows the time units took for starting up, it does not show
       how long unit jobs spent in the execution queue. In particular it
       shows the time units spent in "activating" state, which is not
       defined for units such as device units that transition directly
       from "inactive" to "active". This command hence gives an
       impression of the performance of program code, but cannot
       accurately reflect latency introduced by waiting for hardware and
       similar events.

       Example 2. Show which units took the most time during boot

           $ systemd-analyze blame
                    32.875s pmlogger.service
                    20.905s systemd-networkd-wait-online.service
                    13.299s dev-vda1.device
                    ...
                       23ms sysroot.mount
                       11ms initrd-udevadm-cleanup-db.service
                        3ms sys-kernel-config.mount

   systemd-analyze critical-chain [UNIT...]
       This command prints a tree of the time-critical chain of units
       (for each of the specified UNITs or for the default target
       otherwise). The time after the unit is active or started is
       printed after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to start
       is printed after the "+" character. Note that the output might be
       misleading as the initialization of services might depend on
       socket activation and because of the parallel execution of units.
       Also, similar to the blame command, this only takes into account
       the time units spent in "activating" state, and hence does not
       cover units that never went through an "activating" state (such
       as device units that transition directly from "inactive" to
       "active"). Moreover it does not show information on jobs (and in
       particular not jobs that timed out).

       Example 3. systemd-analyze critical-chain

           $ systemd-analyze critical-chain
           multi-user.target @47.820s
           └─pmie.service @35.968s +548ms
             └─pmcd.service @33.715s +2.247s
               └─network-online.target @33.712s
                 └─systemd-networkd-wait-online.service @12.804s +20.905s
                   └─systemd-networkd.service @11.109s +1.690s
                     └─systemd-udevd.service @9.201s +1.904s
                       └─systemd-tmpfiles-setup-dev.service @7.306s +1.776s
                         └─kmod-static-nodes.service @6.976s +177ms
                           └─systemd-journald.socket
                             └─system.slice
                               └─-.slice

   systemd-analyze dump
       This command outputs a (usually very long) human-readable
       serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject
       to change without notice and should not be parsed by
       applications.

       Example 4. Show the internal state of user manager

           $ systemd-analyze --user dump
           Timestamp userspace: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp generators-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-start: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           Timestamp units-load-finish: Thu 2019-03-14 23:28:07 CET
           -> Unit proc-timer_list.mount:
                   Description: /proc/timer_list
                   ...
           -> Unit default.target:
                   Description: Main user target
           ...

   systemd-analyze plot
       This command prints an SVG graphic detailing which system
       services have been started at what time, highlighting the time
       they spent on initialization.

       Example 5. Plot a bootchart

           $ systemd-analyze plot >bootup.svg
           $ eog bootup.svg&

   systemd-analyze dot [pattern...]
       This command generates textual dependency graph description in
       dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot(1) tool.
       Use a command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg
       >systemd.svg to generate a graphical dependency tree. Unless
       --order or --require is passed, the generated graph will show
       both ordering and requirement dependencies. Optional pattern
       globbing style specifications (e.g.  *.target) may be given at
       the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of
       these patterns match either the origin or destination node.

       Example 6. Plot all dependencies of any unit whose name starts
       with "avahi-daemon"

           $ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg >avahi.svg
           $ eog avahi.svg

       Example 7. Plot the dependencies between all known target units

           $ systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' \
                 | dot -Tsvg >targets.svg
           $ eog targets.svg

   systemd-analyze unit-paths
       This command outputs a list of all directories from which unit
       files, .d overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be
       loaded. Combine with --user to retrieve the list for the user
       manager instance, and --global for the global configuration of
       user manager instances.

       Example 8. Show all paths for generated units

           $ systemd-analyze unit-paths | grep '^/run'
           /run/systemd/system.control
           /run/systemd/transient
           /run/systemd/generator.early
           /run/systemd/system
           /run/systemd/system.attached
           /run/systemd/generator
           /run/systemd/generator.late

       Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into
       systemd-analyze itself, and does not communicate with the running
       manager. Use

           systemctl [--user] [--global] show -p UnitPath --value

       to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty
       directories omitted.

   systemd-analyze exit-status [STATUS...]
       This command prints a list of exit statuses along with their
       "class", i.e. the source of the definition (one of "glibc",
       "systemd", "LSB", or "BSD"), see the Process Exit Codes section
       in systemd.exec(5). If no additional arguments are specified, all
       known statuses are shown. Otherwise, only the definitions for the
       specified codes are shown.

       Example 9. Show some example exit status names

           $ systemd-analyze exit-status 0 1 {63..65}
           NAME    STATUS CLASS
           SUCCESS 0      glibc
           FAILURE 1      glibc
           -       63     -
           USAGE   64     BSD
           DATAERR 65     BSD

   systemd-analyze capability [CAPABILITY...]
       This command prints a list of Linux capabilities along with their
       numeric IDs. See capabilities(7) for details. If no argument is
       specified the full list of capabilities known to the service
       manager and the kernel is shown. Capabilities defined by the
       kernel but not known to the service manager are shown as
       "cap_???". Optionally, if arguments are specified they may refer
       to specific cabilities by name or numeric ID, in which case only
       the indicated capabilities are shown in the table.

       Example 10. Show some example capability names

           $ systemd-analyze capability 0 1 {30..32}
           NAME              NUMBER
           cap_chown              0
           cap_dac_override       1
           cap_audit_control     30
           cap_setfcap           31
           cap_mac_override      32

   systemd-analyze condition CONDITION...
       This command will evaluate Condition*=...  and Assert*=...
       assignments, and print their values, and the resulting value of
       the combined condition set. See systemd.unit(5) for a list of
       available conditions and asserts.

       Example 11. Evaluate conditions that check kernel versions

           $ systemd-analyze condition 'ConditionKernelVersion = ! <4.0' \
                   'ConditionKernelVersion = >=5.1' \
                   'ConditionACPower=|false' \
                   'ConditionArchitecture=|!arm' \
                   'AssertPathExists=/etc/os-release'
           test.service: AssertPathExists=/etc/os-release succeeded.
           Asserts succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionArchitecture=|!arm succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionACPower=|false failed.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=>=5.1 succeeded.
           test.service: ConditionKernelVersion=!<4.0 succeeded.
           Conditions succeeded.

   systemd-analyze syscall-filter [SET...]
       This command will list system calls contained in the specified
       system call set SET, or all known sets if no sets are specified.
       Argument SET must include the "@" prefix.

   systemd-analyze calendar EXPRESSION...
       This command will parse and normalize repetitive calendar time
       events, and will calculate when they elapse next. This takes the
       same input as the OnCalendar= setting in systemd.timer(5),
       following the syntax described in systemd.time(7). By default,
       only the next time the calendar expression will elapse is shown;
       use --iterations= to show the specified number of next times the
       expression elapses. Each time the expression elapses forms a
       timestamp, see the timestamp verb below.

       Example 12. Show leap days in the near future

           $ systemd-analyze calendar --iterations=5 '*-2-29 0:0:0'
             Original form: *-2-29 0:0:0
           Normalized form: *-02-29 00:00:00
               Next elapse: Sat 2020-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 11 months 15 days left
                  Iter. #2: Thu 2024-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 4 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #3: Tue 2028-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 8 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #4: Sun 2032-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 12 years 11 months left
                  Iter. #5: Fri 2036-02-29 00:00:00 UTC
                  From now: 16 years 11 months left

   systemd-analyze timestamp TIMESTAMP...
       This command parses a timestamp (i.e. a single point in time) and
       outputs the normalized form and the difference between this
       timestamp and now. The timestamp should adhere to the syntax
       documented in systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIMESTAMPS".

       Example 13. Show parsing of timestamps

           $ systemd-analyze timestamp yesterday now tomorrow
             Original form: yesterday
           Normalized form: Mon 2019-05-20 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Sun 2019-05-19 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15583032000
                  From now: 1 day 9h ago

             Original form: now
           Normalized form: Tue 2019-05-21 09:48:39 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 07:48:39 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @1558424919.659757
                  From now: 43us ago

             Original form: tomorrow
           Normalized form: Wed 2019-05-22 00:00:00 CEST
                  (in UTC): Tue 2019-05-21 22:00:00 UTC
              UNIX seconds: @15584760000
                  From now: 14h left

   systemd-analyze timespan EXPRESSION...
       This command parses a time span (i.e. a difference between two
       timestamps) and outputs the normalized form and the equivalent
       value in microseconds. The time span should adhere to the syntax
       documented in systemd.time(7), section "PARSING TIME SPANS".
       Values without units are parsed as seconds.

       Example 14. Show parsing of timespans

           $ systemd-analyze timespan 1s 300s '1year 0.000001s'
           Original: 1s
                 μs: 1000000
              Human: 1s

           Original: 300s
                 μs: 300000000
              Human: 5min

           Original: 1year 0.000001s
                 μs: 31557600000001
              Human: 1y 1us

   systemd-analyze cat-config NAME|PATH...
       This command is similar to systemctl cat, but operates on config
       files. It will copy the contents of a config file and any
       drop-ins to standard output, using the usual systemd set of
       directories and rules for precedence. Each argument must be
       either an absolute path including the prefix (such as
       /etc/systemd/logind.conf or /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf), or a
       name relative to the prefix (such as systemd/logind.conf).

       Example 15. Showing logind configuration

           $ systemd-analyze cat-config systemd/logind.conf
           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf
           ...
           [Login]
           NAutoVTs=8
           ...

           # /usr/lib/systemd/logind.conf.d/20-test.conf
           ... some override from another package

           # /etc/systemd/logind.conf.d/50-override.conf
           ... some administrator override

   systemd-analyze verify FILE...
       This command will load unit files and print warnings if any
       errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be
       loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. The full
       unit search path is formed by combining the directories for all
       command line arguments, and the usual unit load paths. The
       variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and may be used to
       replace or augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see
       systemd.unit(5). All units files present in the directories
       containing the command line arguments will be used in preference
       to the other paths.

       The following errors are currently detected:

       •   unknown sections and directives,

       •   missing dependencies which are required to start the given
           unit,

       •   man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the
           system,

       •   commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found
           in the system or not executable.

       Example 16. Misspelt directives

           $ cat ./user.slice
           [Unit]
           WhatIsThis=11
           Documentation=man:nosuchfile(1)
           Requires=different.service

           [Service]
           Description=x

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./user.slice
           [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit'
           [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring.
           Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed:
              Unit different.service failed to load:
              No such file or directory.
           Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument
           user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

       Example 17. Missing service units

           $ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket
           ==> ./a.socket <==
           [Socket]
           ListenStream=100

           ==> ./b.socket <==
           [Socket]
           ListenStream=100
           Accept=yes

           $ systemd-analyze verify ./a.socket ./b.socket
           Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started.
           Service b@0.service not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.

   systemd-analyze security [UNIT...]
       This command analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of one
       or more specified service units. If at least one unit name is
       specified the security settings of the specified service units
       are inspected and a detailed analysis is shown. If no unit name
       is specified, all currently loaded, long-running service units
       are inspected and a terse table with results shown. The command
       checks for various security-related service settings, assigning
       each a numeric "exposure level" value, depending on how important
       a setting is. It then calculates an overall exposure level for
       the whole unit, which is an estimation in the range 0.0...10.0
       indicating how exposed a service is security-wise. High exposure
       levels indicate very little applied sandboxing. Low exposure
       levels indicate tight sandboxing and strongest security
       restrictions. Note that this only analyzes the per-service
       security features systemd itself implements. This means that any
       additional security mechanisms applied by the service code itself
       are not accounted for. The exposure level determined this way
       should not be misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means
       that there is no effective sandboxing applied by the service code
       itself, nor that the service is actually vulnerable to remote or
       local attacks. High exposure levels do indicate however that most
       likely the service might benefit from additional settings applied
       to them.

       Please note that many of the security and sandboxing settings
       individually can be circumvented — unless combined with others.
       For example, if a service retains the privilege to establish or
       undo mount points many of the sandboxing options can be undone by
       the service code itself. Due to that is essential that each
       service uses the most comprehensive and strict sandboxing and
       security settings possible. The tool will take into account some
       of these combinations and relationships between the settings, but
       not all. Also note that the security and sandboxing settings
       analyzed here only apply to the operations executed by the
       service code itself. If a service has access to an IPC system
       (such as D-Bus) it might request operations from other services
       that are not subject to the same restrictions. Any comprehensive
       security and sandboxing analysis is hence incomplete if the IPC
       access policy is not validated too.

       Example 18. Analyze systemd-logind.service

           $ systemd-analyze security --no-pager systemd-logind.service
             NAME                DESCRIPTION                              EXPOSURE
           ✗ PrivateNetwork=     Service has access to the host's network      0.5
           ✗ User=/DynamicUser=  Service runs as root user                     0.4
           ✗ DeviceAllow=        Service has no device ACL                     0.2
           ✓ IPAddressDeny=      Service blocks all IP address ranges
           ...
           → Overall exposure level for systemd-logind.service: 4.1 OK 🙂

OPTIONS         top

       The following options are understood:

       --system
           Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied
           default.

       --user
           Operates on the user systemd instance.

       --global
           Operates on the system-wide configuration for user systemd
           instance.

       --order, --require
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above),
           selects which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph.
           If --order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or
           Before= are shown. If --require is passed, only dependencies
           of type Requires=, Requisite=, Wants= and Conflicts= are
           shown. If neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all
           these types.

       --from-pattern=, --to-pattern=
           When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above),
           this selects which relationships are shown in the dependency
           graph. Both options require a glob(7) pattern as an argument,
           which will be matched against the left-hand and the
           right-hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship.

           Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the
           unit name must match one of the values. When tests for both
           sides of the relation are present, a relation must pass both
           tests to be shown. When patterns are also specified as
           positional arguments, they must match at least one side of
           the relation. In other words, patterns specified with those
           two options will trim the list of edges matched by the
           positional arguments, if any are given, and fully determine
           the list of edges shown otherwise.

       --fuzz=timespan
           When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see
           above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier,
           than the latest unit in the same level. The unit of timespan
           is seconds unless specified with a different unit, e.g.
           "50ms".

       --man=no
           Do not invoke man(1) to verify the existence of man pages
           listed in Documentation=.

       --generators
           Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator(7). Some
           generators require root privileges. Under a normal user,
           running with generators enabled will generally result in some
           warnings.

       --root=PATH
           With cat-files, show config files underneath the specified
           root path PATH.

       --iterations=NUMBER
           When used with the calendar command, show the specified
           number of iterations the specified calendar expression will
           elapse next. Defaults to 1.

       --base-time=TIMESTAMP
           When used with the calendar command, show next iterations
           relative to the specified point in time. If not specified
           defaults to the current time.

       -H, --host=
           Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a
           username and hostname separated by "@", to connect to. The
           hostname may optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is
           listening on, separated by ":", and then a container name,
           separated by "/", which connects directly to a specific
           container on the specified host. This will use SSH to talk to
           the remote machine manager instance. Container names may be
           enumerated with machinectl -H HOST. Put IPv6 addresses in
           brackets.

       -M, --machine=
           Execute operation on a local container. Specify a container
           name to connect to, optionally prefixed by a user name to
           connect as and a separating "@" character. If the special
           string ".host" is used in place of the container name, a
           connection to the local system is made (which is useful to
           connect to a specific user's user bus: "--user
           --machine=lennart@.host"). If the "@" syntax is not used, the
           connection is made as root user. If the "@" syntax is used
           either the left hand side or the right hand side may be
           omitted (but not both) in which case the local user name and
           ".host" are implied.

       -h, --help
           Print a short help text and exit.

       --version
           Print a short version string and exit.

       --no-pager
           Do not pipe output into a pager.

EXIT STATUS         top

       On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.

ENVIRONMENT         top

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_LEVEL
           The maximum log level of emitted messages (messages with a
           higher log level, i.e. less important ones, will be
           suppressed). Either one of (in order of decreasing
           importance) emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info,
           debug, or an integer in the range 0...7. See syslog(3) for
           more information.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_COLOR
           A boolean. If true, messages written to the tty will be
           colored according to priority.

           This setting is only useful when messages are written
           directly to the terminal, because journalctl(1) and other
           tools that display logs will color messages based on the log
           level on their own.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_TIME
           A boolean. If true, console log messages will be prefixed
           with a timestamp.

           This setting is only useful when messages are written
           directly to the terminal or a file, because journalctl(1) and
           other tools that display logs will attach timestamps based on
           the entry metadata on their own.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_LOCATION
           A boolean. If true, messages will be prefixed with a filename
           and line number in the source code where the message
           originates.

           Note that the log location is often attached as metadata to
           journal entries anyway. Including it directly in the message
           text can nevertheless be convenient when debugging programs.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_TID
           A boolean. If true, messages will be prefixed with the
           current numerical thread ID (TID).

           Note that the this information is attached as metadata to
           journal entries anyway. Including it directly in the message
           text can nevertheless be convenient when debugging programs.

       $SYSTEMD_LOG_TARGET
           The destination for log messages. One of console (log to the
           attached tty), console-prefixed (log to the attached tty but
           with prefixes encoding the log level and "facility", see
           syslog(3), kmsg (log to the kernel circular log buffer),
           journal (log to the journal), journal-or-kmsg (log to the
           journal if available, and to kmsg otherwise), auto (determine
           the appropriate log target automatically, the default), null
           (disable log output).

       $SYSTEMD_PAGER
           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER.
           If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of
           well-known pager implementations are tried in turn, including
           less(1) and more(1), until one is found. If no pager
           implementation is discovered no pager is invoked. Setting
           this environment variable to an empty string or the value
           "cat" is equivalent to passing --no-pager.

       $SYSTEMD_LESS
           Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK").

           Users might want to change two options in particular:

           K
               This option instructs the pager to exit immediately when
               Ctrl+C is pressed. To allow less to handle Ctrl+C itself
               to switch back to the pager command prompt, unset this
               option.

               If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and
               the pager that is invoked is less, Ctrl+C will be ignored
               by the executable, and needs to be handled by the pager.

           X
               This option instructs the pager to not send termcap
               initialization and deinitialization strings to the
               terminal. It is set by default to allow command output to
               remain visible in the terminal even after the pager
               exits. Nevertheless, this prevents some pager
               functionality from working, in particular paged output
               cannot be scrolled with the mouse.

           See less(1) for more discussion.

       $SYSTEMD_LESSCHARSET
           Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf-8", if
           the invoking terminal is determined to be UTF-8 compatible).

       $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE
           Takes a boolean argument. When true, the "secure" mode of the
           pager is enabled; if false, disabled. If $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE
           is not set at all, secure mode is enabled if the effective
           UID is not the same as the owner of the login session, see
           geteuid(2) and sd_pid_get_owner_uid(3). In secure mode,
           LESSSECURE=1 will be set when invoking the pager, and the
           pager shall disable commands that open or create new files or
           start new subprocesses. When $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE is not set
           at all, pagers which are not known to implement secure mode
           will not be used. (Currently only less(1) implements secure
           mode.)

           Note: when commands are invoked with elevated privileges, for
           example under sudo(8) or pkexec(1), care must be taken to
           ensure that unintended interactive features are not enabled.
           "Secure" mode for the pager may be enabled automatically as
           describe above. Setting SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE=0 or not removing
           it from the inherited environment allows the user to invoke
           arbitrary commands. Note that if the $SYSTEMD_PAGER or $PAGER
           variables are to be honoured, $SYSTEMD_PAGERSECURE must be
           set too. It might be reasonable to completely disable the
           pager using --no-pager instead.

       $SYSTEMD_COLORS
           Takes a boolean argument. When true, systemd and related
           utilities will use colors in their output, otherwise the
           output will be monochrome. Additionally, the variable can
           take one of the following special values: "16", "256" to
           restrict the use of colors to the base 16 or 256 ANSI colors,
           respectively. This can be specified to override the automatic
           decision based on $TERM and what the console is connected to.

       $SYSTEMD_URLIFY
           The value must be a boolean. Controls whether clickable links
           should be generated in the output for terminal emulators
           supporting this. This can be specified to override the
           decision that systemd makes based on $TERM and other
           conditions.

SEE ALSO         top

       systemd(1), systemctl(1)

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the systemd (systemd system and service
       manager) project.  Information about the project can be found at
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd⟩.  If you have
       a bug report for this manual page, see
       ⟨http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/#bugreports⟩.
       This page was obtained from the project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/systemd/systemd.git⟩ on 2021-06-20.  (At that
       time, the date of the most recent commit that was found in the
       repository was 2021-06-19.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
       man-pages@man7.org

systemd 249                                           SYSTEMD-ANALYZE(1)

Pages that refer to this page: systemd-nspawn(1)systemd.exec(5)systemd.unit(5)systemd-boot(7)systemd.directives(7)systemd.index(7)systemd.time(7)