sched(7) — Linux manual page


SCHED(7)                  Linux Programmer's Manual                 SCHED(7)

NAME         top

       sched - overview of CPU scheduling

DESCRIPTION         top

       Since Linux 2.6.23, the default scheduler is CFS, the "Completely
       Fair Scheduler".  The CFS scheduler replaced the earlier "O(1)"

   API summary
       Linux provides the following system calls for controlling the CPU
       scheduling behavior, policy, and priority of processes (or, more
       precisely, threads).

              Set a new nice value for the calling thread, and return the
              new nice value.

              Return the nice value of a thread, a process group, or the set
              of threads owned by a specified user.

              Set the nice value of a thread, a process group, or the set of
              threads owned by a specified user.

              Set the scheduling policy and parameters of a specified

              Return the scheduling policy of a specified thread.

              Set the scheduling parameters of a specified thread.

              Fetch the scheduling parameters of a specified thread.

              Return the maximum priority available in a specified
              scheduling policy.

              Return the minimum priority available in a specified
              scheduling policy.

              Fetch the quantum used for threads that are scheduled under
              the "round-robin" scheduling policy.

              Cause the caller to relinquish the CPU, so that some other
              thread be executed.

              (Linux-specific) Set the CPU affinity of a specified thread.

              (Linux-specific) Get the CPU affinity of a specified thread.

              Set the scheduling policy and parameters of a specified
              thread.  This (Linux-specific) system call provides a superset
              of the functionality of sched_setscheduler(2) and

              Fetch the scheduling policy and parameters of a specified
              thread.  This (Linux-specific) system call provides a superset
              of the functionality of sched_getscheduler(2) and

   Scheduling policies
       The scheduler is the kernel component that decides which runnable
       thread will be executed by the CPU next.  Each thread has an
       associated scheduling policy and a static scheduling priority,
       sched_priority.  The scheduler makes its decisions based on knowledge
       of the scheduling policy and static priority of all threads on the

       For threads scheduled under one of the normal scheduling policies
       (SCHED_OTHER, SCHED_IDLE, SCHED_BATCH), sched_priority is not used in
       scheduling decisions (it must be specified as 0).

       Processes scheduled under one of the real-time policies (SCHED_FIFO,
       SCHED_RR) have a sched_priority value in the range 1 (low) to 99
       (high).  (As the numbers imply, real-time threads always have higher
       priority than normal threads.)  Note well: POSIX.1 requires an
       implementation to support only a minimum 32 distinct priority levels
       for the real-time policies, and some systems supply just this
       minimum.  Portable programs should use sched_get_priority_min(2) and
       sched_get_priority_max(2) to find the range of priorities supported
       for a particular policy.

       Conceptually, the scheduler maintains a list of runnable threads for
       each possible sched_priority value.  In order to determine which
       thread runs next, the scheduler looks for the nonempty list with the
       highest static priority and selects the thread at the head of this

       A thread's scheduling policy determines where it will be inserted
       into the list of threads with equal static priority and how it will
       move inside this list.

       All scheduling is preemptive: if a thread with a higher static
       priority becomes ready to run, the currently running thread will be
       preempted and returned to the wait list for its static priority
       level.  The scheduling policy determines the ordering only within the
       list of runnable threads with equal static priority.

   SCHED_FIFO: First in-first out scheduling
       SCHED_FIFO can be used only with static priorities higher than 0,
       which means that when a SCHED_FIFO thread becomes runnable, it will
       always immediately preempt any currently running SCHED_OTHER,
       SCHED_BATCH, or SCHED_IDLE thread.  SCHED_FIFO is a simple scheduling
       algorithm without time slicing.  For threads scheduled under the
       SCHED_FIFO policy, the following rules apply:

       1) A running SCHED_FIFO thread that has been preempted by another
          thread of higher priority will stay at the head of the list for
          its priority and will resume execution as soon as all threads of
          higher priority are blocked again.

       2) When a blocked SCHED_FIFO thread becomes runnable, it will be
          inserted at the end of the list for its priority.

       3) If a call to sched_setscheduler(2), sched_setparam(2),
          sched_setattr(2), pthread_setschedparam(3), or
          pthread_setschedprio(3) changes the priority of the running or
          runnable SCHED_FIFO thread identified by pid the effect on the
          thread's position in the list depends on the direction of the
          change to threads priority:

          ·  If the thread's priority is raised, it is placed at the end of
             the list for its new priority.  As a consequence, it may
             preempt a currently running thread with the same priority.

          ·  If the thread's priority is unchanged, its position in the run
             list is unchanged.

          ·  If the thread's priority is lowered, it is placed at the front
             of the list for its new priority.

          According to POSIX.1-2008, changes to a thread's priority (or
          policy) using any mechanism other than pthread_setschedprio(3)
          should result in the thread being placed at the end of the list
          for its priority.

       4) A thread calling sched_yield(2) will be put at the end of the

       No other events will move a thread scheduled under the SCHED_FIFO
       policy in the wait list of runnable threads with equal static

       A SCHED_FIFO thread runs until either it is blocked by an I/O
       request, it is preempted by a higher priority thread, or it calls

   SCHED_RR: Round-robin scheduling
       SCHED_RR is a simple enhancement of SCHED_FIFO.  Everything described
       above for SCHED_FIFO also applies to SCHED_RR, except that each
       thread is allowed to run only for a maximum time quantum.  If a
       SCHED_RR thread has been running for a time period equal to or longer
       than the time quantum, it will be put at the end of the list for its
       priority.  A SCHED_RR thread that has been preempted by a higher
       priority thread and subsequently resumes execution as a running
       thread will complete the unexpired portion of its round-robin time
       quantum.  The length of the time quantum can be retrieved using

   SCHED_DEADLINE: Sporadic task model deadline scheduling
       Since version 3.14, Linux provides a deadline scheduling policy
       (SCHED_DEADLINE).  This policy is currently implemented using GEDF
       (Global Earliest Deadline First) in conjunction with CBS (Constant
       Bandwidth Server).  To set and fetch this policy and associated
       attributes, one must use the Linux-specific sched_setattr(2) and
       sched_getattr(2) system calls.

       A sporadic task is one that has a sequence of jobs, where each job is
       activated at most once per period.  Each job also has a relative
       deadline, before which it should finish execution, and a computation
       time, which is the CPU time necessary for executing the job.  The
       moment when a task wakes up because a new job has to be executed is
       called the arrival time (also referred to as the request time or
       release time).  The start time is the time at which a task starts its
       execution.  The absolute deadline is thus obtained by adding the
       relative deadline to the arrival time.

       The following diagram clarifies these terms:

           arrival/wakeup                    absolute deadline
                |    start time                    |
                |        |                         |
                v        v                         v
                         |<- comp. time ->|
                |<------- relative deadline ------>|
                |<-------------- period ------------------->|

       When setting a SCHED_DEADLINE policy for a thread using
       sched_setattr(2), one can specify three parameters: Runtime, Dead‐
       line, and Period.  These parameters do not necessarily correspond to
       the aforementioned terms: usual practice is to set Runtime to some‐
       thing bigger than the average computation time (or worst-case execu‐
       tion time for hard real-time tasks), Deadline to the relative dead‐
       line, and Period to the period of the task.  Thus, for SCHED_DEADLINE
       scheduling, we have:

           arrival/wakeup                    absolute deadline
                |    start time                    |
                |        |                         |
                v        v                         v
                         |<-- Runtime ------->|
                |<----------- Deadline ----------->|
                |<-------------- Period ------------------->|

       The three deadline-scheduling parameters correspond to the sched_run‐
       time, sched_deadline, and sched_period fields of the sched_attr
       structure; see sched_setattr(2).  These fields express values in
       nanoseconds.  If sched_period is specified as 0, then it is made the
       same as sched_deadline.

       The kernel requires that:

           sched_runtime <= sched_deadline <= sched_period

       In addition, under the current implementation, all of the parameter
       values must be at least 1024 (i.e., just over one microsecond, which
       is the resolution of the implementation), and less than 2^63.  If any
       of these checks fails, sched_setattr(2) fails with the error EINVAL.

       The CBS guarantees non-interference between tasks, by throttling
       threads that attempt to over-run their specified Runtime.

       To ensure deadline scheduling guarantees, the kernel must prevent
       situations where the set of SCHED_DEADLINE threads is not feasible
       (schedulable) within the given constraints.  The kernel thus performs
       an admittance test when setting or changing SCHED_DEADLINE policy and
       attributes.  This admission test calculates whether the change is
       feasible; if it is not, sched_setattr(2) fails with the error EBUSY.

       For example, it is required (but not necessarily sufficient) for the
       total utilization to be less than or equal to the total number of
       CPUs available, where, since each thread can maximally run for Run‐
       time per Period, that thread's utilization is its Runtime divided by
       its Period.

       In order to fulfill the guarantees that are made when a thread is
       admitted to the SCHED_DEADLINE policy, SCHED_DEADLINE threads are the
       highest priority (user controllable) threads in the system; if any
       SCHED_DEADLINE thread is runnable, it will preempt any thread sched‐
       uled under one of the other policies.

       A call to fork(2) by a thread scheduled under the SCHED_DEADLINE pol‐
       icy fails with the error EAGAIN, unless the thread has its reset-on-
       fork flag set (see below).

       A SCHED_DEADLINE thread that calls sched_yield(2) will yield the cur‐
       rent job and wait for a new period to begin.

   SCHED_OTHER: Default Linux time-sharing scheduling
       SCHED_OTHER can be used at only static priority 0 (i.e., threads
       under real-time policies always have priority over SCHED_OTHER pro‐
       cesses).  SCHED_OTHER is the standard Linux time-sharing scheduler
       that is intended for all threads that do not require the special
       real-time mechanisms.

       The thread to run is chosen from the static priority 0 list based on
       a dynamic priority that is determined only inside this list.  The
       dynamic priority is based on the nice value (see below) and is
       increased for each time quantum the thread is ready to run, but
       denied to run by the scheduler.  This ensures fair progress among all
       SCHED_OTHER threads.

       In the Linux kernel source code, the SCHED_OTHER policy is actually
       named SCHED_NORMAL.

   The nice value
       The nice value is an attribute that can be used to influence the CPU
       scheduler to favor or disfavor a process in scheduling decisions.  It
       affects the scheduling of SCHED_OTHER and SCHED_BATCH (see below)
       processes.  The nice value can be modified using nice(2),
       setpriority(2), or sched_setattr(2).

       According to POSIX.1, the nice value is a per-process attribute; that
       is, the threads in a process should share a nice value.  However, on
       Linux, the nice value is a per-thread attribute: different threads in
       the same process may have different nice values.

       The range of the nice value varies across UNIX systems.  On modern
       Linux, the range is -20 (high priority) to +19 (low priority).  On
       some other systems, the range is -20..20.  Very early Linux kernels
       (Before Linux 2.0) had the range -infinity..15.

       The degree to which the nice value affects the relative scheduling of
       SCHED_OTHER processes likewise varies across UNIX systems and across
       Linux kernel versions.

       With the advent of the CFS scheduler in kernel 2.6.23, Linux adopted
       an algorithm that causes relative differences in nice values to have
       a much stronger effect.  In the current implementation, each unit of
       difference in the nice values of two processes results in a factor of
       1.25 in the degree to which the scheduler favors the higher priority
       process.  This causes very low nice values (+19) to truly provide
       little CPU to a process whenever there is any other higher priority
       load on the system, and makes high nice values (-20) deliver most of
       the CPU to applications that require it (e.g., some audio applica‐

       On Linux, the RLIMIT_NICE resource limit can be used to define a
       limit to which an unprivileged process's nice value can be raised;
       see setrlimit(2) for details.

       For further details on the nice value, see the subsections on the
       autogroup feature and group scheduling, below.

   SCHED_BATCH: Scheduling batch processes
       (Since Linux 2.6.16.)  SCHED_BATCH can be used only at static prior‐
       ity 0.  This policy is similar to SCHED_OTHER in that it schedules
       the thread according to its dynamic priority (based on the nice
       value).  The difference is that this policy will cause the scheduler
       to always assume that the thread is CPU-intensive.  Consequently, the
       scheduler will apply a small scheduling penalty with respect to
       wakeup behavior, so that this thread is mildly disfavored in schedul‐
       ing decisions.

       This policy is useful for workloads that are noninteractive, but do
       not want to lower their nice value, and for workloads that want a
       deterministic scheduling policy without interactivity causing extra
       preemptions (between the workload's tasks).

   SCHED_IDLE: Scheduling very low priority jobs
       (Since Linux 2.6.23.)  SCHED_IDLE can be used only at static priority
       0; the process nice value has no influence for this policy.

       This policy is intended for running jobs at extremely low priority
       (lower even than a +19 nice value with the SCHED_OTHER or SCHED_BATCH

   Resetting scheduling policy for child processes
       Each thread has a reset-on-fork scheduling flag.  When this flag is
       set, children created by fork(2) do not inherit privileged scheduling
       policies.  The reset-on-fork flag can be set by either:

       *  ORing the SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK flag into the policy argument when
          calling sched_setscheduler(2) (since Linux 2.6.32); or

       *  specifying the SCHED_FLAG_RESET_ON_FORK flag in attr.sched_flags
          when calling sched_setattr(2).

       Note that the constants used with these two APIs have different
       names.  The state of the reset-on-fork flag can analogously be
       retrieved using sched_getscheduler(2) and sched_getattr(2).

       The reset-on-fork feature is intended for media-playback applica‐
       tions, and can be used to prevent applications evading the
       RLIMIT_RTTIME resource limit (see getrlimit(2)) by creating multiple
       child processes.

       More precisely, if the reset-on-fork flag is set, the following rules
       apply for subsequently created children:

       *  If the calling thread has a scheduling policy of SCHED_FIFO or
          SCHED_RR, the policy is reset to SCHED_OTHER in child processes.

       *  If the calling process has a negative nice value, the nice value
          is reset to zero in child processes.

       After the reset-on-fork flag has been enabled, it can be reset only
       if the thread has the CAP_SYS_NICE capability.  This flag is disabled
       in child processes created by fork(2).

   Privileges and resource limits
       In Linux kernels before 2.6.12, only privileged (CAP_SYS_NICE)
       threads can set a nonzero static priority (i.e., set a real-time
       scheduling policy).  The only change that an unprivileged thread can
       make is to set the SCHED_OTHER policy, and this can be done only if
       the effective user ID of the caller matches the real or effective
       user ID of the target thread (i.e., the thread specified by pid)
       whose policy is being changed.

       A thread must be privileged (CAP_SYS_NICE) in order to set or modify
       a SCHED_DEADLINE policy.

       Since Linux 2.6.12, the RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit defines a ceil‐
       ing on an unprivileged thread's static priority for the SCHED_RR and
       SCHED_FIFO policies.  The rules for changing scheduling policy and
       priority are as follows:

       *  If an unprivileged thread has a nonzero RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit,
          then it can change its scheduling policy and priority, subject to
          the restriction that the priority cannot be set to a value higher
          than the maximum of its current priority and its RLIMIT_RTPRIO
          soft limit.

       *  If the RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit is 0, then the only permitted
          changes are to lower the priority, or to switch to a non-real-time

       *  Subject to the same rules, another unprivileged thread can also
          make these changes, as long as the effective user ID of the thread
          making the change matches the real or effective user ID of the
          target thread.

       *  Special rules apply for the SCHED_IDLE policy.  In Linux kernels
          before 2.6.39, an unprivileged thread operating under this policy
          cannot change its policy, regardless of the value of its
          RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit.  In Linux kernels since 2.6.39, an
          unprivileged thread can switch to either the SCHED_BATCH or the
          SCHED_OTHER policy so long as its nice value falls within the
          range permitted by its RLIMIT_NICE resource limit (see

       Privileged (CAP_SYS_NICE) threads ignore the RLIMIT_RTPRIO limit; as
       with older kernels, they can make arbitrary changes to scheduling
       policy and priority.  See getrlimit(2) for further information on

   Limiting the CPU usage of real-time and deadline processes
       A nonblocking infinite loop in a thread scheduled under the
       SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR, or SCHED_DEADLINE policy can potentially block
       all other threads from accessing the CPU forever.  Prior to Linux
       2.6.25, the only way of preventing a runaway real-time process from
       freezing the system was to run (at the console) a shell scheduled
       under a higher static priority than the tested application.  This
       allows an emergency kill of tested real-time applications that do not
       block or terminate as expected.

       Since Linux 2.6.25, there are other techniques for dealing with run‐
       away real-time and deadline processes.  One of these is to use the
       RLIMIT_RTTIME resource limit to set a ceiling on the CPU time that a
       real-time process may consume.  See getrlimit(2) for details.

       Since version 2.6.25, Linux also provides two /proc files that can be
       used to reserve a certain amount of CPU time to be used by non-real-
       time processes.  Reserving CPU time in this fashion allows some CPU
       time to be allocated to (say) a root shell that can be used to kill a
       runaway process.  Both of these files specify time values in

              This file specifies a scheduling period that is equivalent to
              100% CPU bandwidth.  The value in this file can range from 1
              to INT_MAX, giving an operating range of 1 microsecond to
              around 35 minutes.  The default value in this file is
              1,000,000 (1 second).

              The value in this file specifies how much of the "period" time
              can be used by all real-time and deadline scheduled processes
              on the system.  The value in this file can range from -1 to
              INT_MAX-1.  Specifying -1 makes the run time the same as the
              period; that is, no CPU time is set aside for non-real-time
              processes (which was the Linux behavior before kernel 2.6.25).
              The default value in this file is 950,000 (0.95 seconds),
              meaning that 5% of the CPU time is reserved for processes that
              don't run under a real-time or deadline scheduling policy.

   Response time
       A blocked high priority thread waiting for I/O has a certain response
       time before it is scheduled again.  The device driver writer can
       greatly reduce this response time by using a "slow interrupt" inter‐
       rupt handler.

       Child processes inherit the scheduling policy and parameters across a
       fork(2).  The scheduling policy and parameters are preserved across

       Memory locking is usually needed for real-time processes to avoid
       paging delays; this can be done with mlock(2) or mlockall(2).

   The autogroup feature
       Since Linux 2.6.38, the kernel provides a feature known as autogroup‐
       ing to improve interactive desktop performance in the face of multi‐
       process, CPU-intensive workloads such as building the Linux kernel
       with large numbers of parallel build processes (i.e., the make(1) -j

       This feature operates in conjunction with the CFS scheduler and
       requires a kernel that is configured with CONFIG_SCHED_AUTOGROUP.  On
       a running system, this feature is enabled or disabled via the file
       /proc/sys/kernel/sched_autogroup_enabled; a value of 0 disables the
       feature, while a value of 1 enables it.  The default value in this
       file is 1, unless the kernel was booted with the noautogroup parame‐

       A new autogroup is created when a new session is created via
       setsid(2); this happens, for example, when a new terminal window is
       started.  A new process created by fork(2) inherits its parent's
       autogroup membership.  Thus, all of the processes in a session are
       members of the same autogroup.  An autogroup is automatically
       destroyed when the last process in the group terminates.

       When autogrouping is enabled, all of the members of an autogroup are
       placed in the same kernel scheduler "task group".  The CFS scheduler
       employs an algorithm that equalizes the distribution of CPU cycles
       across task groups.  The benefits of this for interactive desktop
       performance can be described via the following example.

       Suppose that there are two autogroups competing for the same CPU
       (i.e., presume either a single CPU system or the use of taskset(1) to
       confine all the processes to the same CPU on an SMP system).  The
       first group contains ten CPU-bound processes from a kernel build
       started with make -j10.  The other contains a single CPU-bound
       process: a video player.  The effect of autogrouping is that the two
       groups will each receive half of the CPU cycles.  That is, the video
       player will receive 50% of the CPU cycles, rather than just 9% of the
       cycles, which would likely lead to degraded video playback.  The sit‐
       uation on an SMP system is more complex, but the general effect is
       the same: the scheduler distributes CPU cycles across task groups
       such that an autogroup that contains a large number of CPU-bound pro‐
       cesses does not end up hogging CPU cycles at the expense of the other
       jobs on the system.

       A process's autogroup (task group) membership can be viewed via the
       file /proc/[pid]/autogroup:

           $ cat /proc/1/autogroup
           /autogroup-1 nice 0

       This file can also be used to modify the CPU bandwidth allocated to
       an autogroup.  This is done by writing a number in the "nice" range
       to the file to set the autogroup's nice value.  The allowed range is
       from +19 (low priority) to -20 (high priority).  (Writing values out‐
       side of this range causes write(2) to fail with the error EINVAL.)

       The autogroup nice setting has the same meaning as the process nice
       value, but applies to distribution of CPU cycles to the autogroup as
       a whole, based on the relative nice values of other autogroups.  For
       a process inside an autogroup, the CPU cycles that it receives will
       be a product of the autogroup's nice value (compared to other auto‐
       groups) and the process's nice value (compared to other processes in
       the same autogroup.

       The use of the cgroups(7) CPU controller to place processes in
       cgroups other than the root CPU cgroup overrides the effect of auto‐

       The autogroup feature groups only processes scheduled under non-real-
       time policies (SCHED_OTHER, SCHED_BATCH, and SCHED_IDLE).  It does
       not group processes scheduled under real-time and deadline policies.
       Those processes are scheduled according to the rules described ear‐

   The nice value and group scheduling
       When scheduling non-real-time processes (i.e., those scheduled under
       the SCHED_OTHER, SCHED_BATCH, and SCHED_IDLE policies), the CFS
       scheduler employs a technique known as "group scheduling", if the
       kernel was configured with the CONFIG_FAIR_GROUP_SCHED option (which
       is typical).

       Under group scheduling, threads are scheduled in "task groups".  Task
       groups have a hierarchical relationship, rooted under the initial
       task group on the system, known as the "root task group".  Task
       groups are formed in the following circumstances:

       *  All of the threads in a CPU cgroup form a task group.  The parent
          of this task group is the task group of the corresponding parent

       *  If autogrouping is enabled, then all of the threads that are
          (implicitly) placed in an autogroup (i.e., the same session, as
          created by setsid(2)) form a task group.  Each new autogroup is
          thus a separate task group.  The root task group is the parent of
          all such autogroups.

       *  If autogrouping is enabled, then the root task group consists of
          all processes in the root CPU cgroup that were not otherwise
          implicitly placed into a new autogroup.

       *  If autogrouping is disabled, then the root task group consists of
          all processes in the root CPU cgroup.

       *  If group scheduling was disabled (i.e., the kernel was configured
          without CONFIG_FAIR_GROUP_SCHED), then all of the processes on the
          system are notionally placed in a single task group.

       Under group scheduling, a thread's nice value has an effect for
       scheduling decisions only relative to other threads in the same task
       group.  This has some surprising consequences in terms of the tradi‐
       tional semantics of the nice value on UNIX systems.  In particular,
       if autogrouping is enabled (which is the default in various distribu‐
       tions), then employing setpriority(2) or nice(1) on a process has an
       effect only for scheduling relative to other processes executed in
       the same session (typically: the same terminal window).

       Conversely, for two processes that are (for example) the sole CPU-
       bound processes in different sessions (e.g., different terminal win‐
       dows, each of whose jobs are tied to different autogroups), modifying
       the nice value of the process in one of the sessions has no effect in
       terms of the scheduler's decisions relative to the process in the
       other session.  A possibly useful workaround here is to use a command
       such as the following to modify the autogroup nice value for all of
       the processes in a terminal session:

           $ echo 10 > /proc/self/autogroup

   Real-time features in the mainline Linux kernel
       Since kernel version 2.6.18, Linux is gradually becoming equipped
       with real-time capabilities, most of which are derived from the for‐
       mer realtime-preempt patch set.  Until the patches have been com‐
       pletely merged into the mainline kernel, they must be installed to
       achieve the best real-time performance.  These patches are named:


       and can be downloaded from 

       Without the patches and prior to their full inclusion into the main‐
       line kernel, the kernel configuration offers only the three preemp‐
       FIG_PREEMPT_DESKTOP which respectively provide no, some, and consid‐
       erable reduction of the worst-case scheduling latency.

       With the patches applied or after their full inclusion into the main‐
       line kernel, the additional configuration item CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT
       becomes available.  If this is selected, Linux is transformed into a
       regular real-time operating system.  The FIFO and RR scheduling poli‐
       cies are then used to run a thread with true real-time priority and a
       minimum worst-case scheduling latency.

NOTES         top

       The cgroups(7) CPU controller can be used to limit the CPU
       consumption of groups of processes.

       Originally, Standard Linux was intended as a general-purpose
       operating system being able to handle background processes,
       interactive applications, and less demanding real-time applications
       (applications that need to usually meet timing deadlines).  Although
       the Linux kernel 2.6 allowed for kernel preemption and the newly
       introduced O(1) scheduler ensures that the time needed to schedule is
       fixed and deterministic irrespective of the number of active tasks,
       true real-time computing was not possible up to kernel version

SEE ALSO         top

       chcpu(1), chrt(1), lscpu(1), ps(1), taskset(1), top(1),
       getpriority(2), mlock(2), mlockall(2), munlock(2), munlockall(2),
       nice(2), sched_get_priority_max(2), sched_get_priority_min(2),
       sched_getaffinity(2), sched_getparam(2), sched_getscheduler(2),
       sched_rr_get_interval(2), sched_setaffinity(2), sched_setparam(2),
       sched_setscheduler(2), sched_yield(2), setpriority(2),
       pthread_getaffinity_np(3), pthread_getschedparam(3),
       pthread_setaffinity_np(3), sched_getcpu(3), capabilities(7),

       Programming for the real world -  POSIX.4  by  Bill  O.  Gallmeister,
       O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., ISBN 1-56592-074-0.

       The   Linux   kernel   source   files  Documentation/scheduler/sched-
       deadline.txt,             Documentation/scheduler/sched-rt-group.txt,
       Documentation/scheduler/sched-design-CFS.txt,                     and

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Linux                            2019-08-02                         SCHED(7)

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