This is filebuff/direct_read.c (Listing 13-1, page 247), an example from the book, The Linux Programming Interface.

The source code file is copyright 2022, Michael Kerrisk, and is licensed under the GNU General Public License, version 3.

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Function list (Bold in this list means a function is not static)

/* direct_read.c

   Demonstrate the use of O_DIRECT to perform I/O bypassing the buffer cache
   ("direct I/O").

   Usage: direct_read file length [offset [alignment]]

   This program is Linux-specific.
#define _GNU_SOURCE     /* Obtain O_DIRECT definition from <fcntl.h> */
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include "tlpi_hdr.h"
main(int argc, char *argv[])
    int fd;
    ssize_t numRead;
    size_t length, alignment;
    off_t offset;
    char *buf;

    if (argc < 3 || strcmp(argv[1], "--help") == 0)
        usageErr("%s file length [offset [alignment]]\n", argv[0]);

    length = getLong(argv[2], GN_ANY_BASE, "length");
    offset = (argc > 3) ? getLong(argv[3], GN_ANY_BASE, "offset") : 0;
    alignment = (argc > 4) ? getLong(argv[4], GN_ANY_BASE, "alignment") : 4096;

    fd = open(argv[1], O_RDONLY | O_DIRECT);
    if (fd == -1)

    /* memalign() allocates a block of memory aligned on an address that
       is a multiple of its first argument. By specifying this argument as
       2 * 'alignment' and then adding 'alignment' to the returned pointer,
       we ensure that 'buf' is aligned on a non-power-of-two multiple of
       'alignment'. We do this to ensure that if, for example, we ask
       for a 256-byte aligned buffer, we don't accidentally get
       a buffer that is also aligned on a 512-byte boundary. */

    buf = memalign(alignment * 2, length + alignment);
    if (buf == NULL)

    buf += alignment;

    if (lseek(fd, offset, SEEK_SET) == -1)

    numRead = read(fd, buf, length);
    if (numRead == -1)
    /*FIXME: should use %zd here, and remove (long) cast */
    printf("Read %ld bytes\n", (long) numRead);



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