This is procexec/t_clone.c (Listing 28-3, page 601), an example from the book, The Linux Programming Interface.

The source code file is copyright 2022, Michael Kerrisk, and is licensed under the GNU General Public License, version 3.

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/* t_clone.c

   Demonstrate the use of the Linux-specific clone() system call.
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sched.h>
#include "tlpi_hdr.h"

#ifndef CHILD_SIG
#define CHILD_SIG SIGUSR1       /* Signal to be generated on termination
                                   of cloned child */
static int                      /* Startup function for cloned child */
childFunc(void *arg)
    if (close(*((int *) arg)) == -1)

    return 0;                           /* Child terminates now */
main(int argc, char *argv[])
    const int STACK_SIZE = 65536;       /* Stack size for cloned child */
    char *stack;                        /* Start of stack buffer */
    char *stackTop;                     /* End of stack buffer */
    int s, fd, flags;

    fd = open("/dev/null", O_RDWR);     /* Child will close this fd */
    if (fd == -1)

    /* If argc > 1, child shares file descriptor table with parent */

    flags = (argc > 1) ? CLONE_FILES : 0;

    /* Allocate stack for child */

    stack = malloc(STACK_SIZE);
    if (stack == NULL)
    stackTop = stack + STACK_SIZE;      /* Assume stack grows downward */

    /* Ignore CHILD_SIG, in case it is a signal whose default is to
       terminate the process; but don't ignore SIGCHLD (which is ignored
       by default), since that would prevent the creation of a zombie. */

    if (CHILD_SIG != 0 && CHILD_SIG != SIGCHLD)
        if (signal(CHILD_SIG, SIG_IGN) == SIG_ERR)          errExit("signal");

    /* Create child; child commences execution in childFunc() */

    if (clone(childFunc, stackTop, flags | CHILD_SIG, (void *) &fd) == -1)

    /* Parent falls through to here. Wait for child; __WCLONE is
       needed for child notifying with signal other than SIGCHLD. */

    if (waitpid(-1, NULL, (CHILD_SIG != SIGCHLD) ? __WCLONE : 0) == -1)
    printf("child has terminated\n");

    /* Did close() of file descriptor in child affect parent? */

    s = write(fd, "x", 1);
    if (s == -1 && errno == EBADF)
        printf("file descriptor %d has been closed\n", fd);
    else if (s == -1)
        printf("write() on file descriptor %d failed "
                "unexpectedly (%s)\n", fd, strerror(errno));
        printf("write() on file descriptor %d succeeded\n", fd);



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