pcp-atop(1) — Linux manual page

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | COLORS | GPU STATISTICS GATHERING | INTERACTIVE COMMANDS | PCP DATA STORAGE | OUTPUT DESCRIPTION | OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - SYSTEM LEVEL | OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - PROCESS LEVEL | PARSEABLE OUTPUT | SIGNALS | EXAMPLES | NOTES | FILES | PCP ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

PCP-ATOP(1)              General Commands Manual             PCP-ATOP(1)

NAME         top

       pcp-atop - Advanced System and Process Monitor

SYNOPSIS         top

       Interactive Usage:

       pcp [pcp options] atop [-aAcCdDfFgGmMnNopRsuvxy1] [-L linelen]
       [-Plabel[,label]...] [interval [samples]]

       Writing and reading PCP archive folios:

       pcp atop -w folio [-a] [-S] [interval [samples]]
       pcp atop -r folio [-AcCdDfFgGmMnNopRsuvxy1] [-b hh:mm] [-e hh:mm]
       [-L linelen] [-Plabel[,label]...] [interval [samples]]

DESCRIPTION         top

       The program pcp-atop is an interactive monitor to view various
       aspects of load on a system.  It shows the occupation of the most
       critical hardware resources (from a performance point of view) on
       system level, i.e. cpu, memory, disk and network.
       It also shows which processes are responsible for the indicated
       load with respect to cpu and memory load on process level.  Disk
       load is shown per process if "storage accounting" is active in
       the kernel.

       Every interval (default: 10 seconds) information is shown about
       the resource occupation on system level (cpu, memory, disks and
       network layers), followed by a list of processes which have been
       active during the last interval (note that all processes that
       were unchanged during the last interval are not shown, unless the
       key 'a' has been pressed or unless sorting on memory occupation
       is done).  If the list of active processes does not entirely fit
       on the screen, only the top of the list is shown (sorted in order
       of activity).
       The intervals are repeated till the number of samples (specified
       as command argument) is reached, or till the key 'q' is pressed
       in interactive mode.

       When invoked via the pcp(1) command, the PCPIntro(1) options
       -h/--host, -a/--archive, -O/--origin, -s/--samples,
       -t/--interval, -Z/--timezone and several other pcp options become
       indirectly available.  The long option form of these is directly
       available.  Additionally, the --hotproc option can be used to
       request the per-process PCP metrics be used instead of the
       default proc metrics from pmdaproc(1).

       When pcp-atop is started, it checks whether the standard output
       channel is connected to a screen, or to a file/pipe.  In the
       first case it produces screen control codes (via the ncurses
       library) and behaves interactively; in the second case it
       produces flat ASCII-output.

       In interactive mode, the output of pcp-atop scales dynamically to
       the current dimensions of the screen/window.
       If the window is resized horizontally, columns will be added or
       removed automatically. For this purpose, every column has a
       particular weight.  The columns with the highest weights that fit
       within the current width will be shown.
       If the window is resized vertically, lines of the process/thread
       list will be added or removed automatically.

       Furthermore in interactive mode the output of pcp-atop can be
       controlled by pressing particular keys.  However it is also
       possible to specify such key as flag on the command line.  In
       that case pcp-atop switches to the indicated mode on beforehand;
       this mode can be modified again interactively.  Specifying such
       key as flag is especially useful when running pcp-atop with
       output to a pipe or file (non-interactively).  These flags are
       the same as the keys that can be pressed in interactive mode (see
       section INTERACTIVE COMMANDS).
       Additional flags are available to support storage of pcp-atop
       data in PCP archive format (see section PCP DATA STORAGE).

COLORS         top

       For the resource consumption on system level, pcp-atop uses
       colors to indicate that a critical occupation percentage has been
       (almost) reached.  A critical occupation percentage means that is
       likely that this load causes a noticeable negative performance
       influence for applications using this resource.  The critical
       percentage depends on the type of resource: e.g. the performance
       influence of a disk with a busy percentage of 80% might be more
       noticeable for applications/user than a CPU with a busy
       percentage of 90%.
       Currently pcp-atop uses the following default values to calculate
       a weighted percentage per resource:

        Processor
            A busy percentage of 90% or higher is considered `critical'.

        Disk
            A busy percentage of 70% or higher is considered `critical'.

        Network
            A busy percentage of 90% or higher for the load of an
            interface is considered `critical'.

        Memory
            An occupation percentage of 90% is considered `critical'.
            Notice that this occupation percentage is the accumulated
            memory consumption of the kernel (including slab) and all
            processes; the memory for the page cache (`cache' and `buff'
            in the MEM-line) and the reclaimable part of the slab
            (`slrec`) is not implied!
            If the number of pages swapped out (`swout' in the PAG-line)
            is larger than 10 per second, the memory resource is
            considered `critical'.  A value of at least 1 per second is
            considered `almost critical'.
            If the committed virtual memory exceeds the limit (`vmcom'
            and `vmlim' in the SWP-line), the SWP-line is colored due to
            overcommitting the system.

        Swap
            An occupation percentage of 80% is considered `critical'
            because swap space might be completely exhausted in the near
            future; it is not critical from a performance point-of-view.

       These default values can be modified in the configuration file
       (see separate man-page of pcp-atoprc(5)).

       When a resource exceeds its critical occupation percentage, the
       concerning values in the screen line are colored red by default.
       When a resource exceeded (default) 80% of its critical percentage
       (so it is almost critical), the concerning values in the screen
       line are colored cyan by default.  This `almost critical
       percentage' (one value for all resources) can be modified in the
       configuration file (see separate man-page of pcp-atoprc(5)).
       The default colors red and cyan can be modified in the
       configuration file as well (see separate man-page of
       pcp-atoprc(5)).

       With the key 'x' (or flag -x), the use of colors can be
       suppressed.

GPU STATISTICS GATHERING         top

       GPU statistics can be gathered by pmdanvidia(1) which is a
       separate data collection daemon process.  It gathers cumulative
       utilization counters of every Nvidia GPU in the system, as well
       as utilization counters of every process that uses a GPU.  When
       pcp-atop notices that the daemon is active, it reads these GPU
       utilization counters with every interval.

       Find a description about the utilization counters in the section
       OUTPUT DESCRIPTION.

INTERACTIVE COMMANDS         top

       When running pcp-atop interactively (no output redirection), keys
       can be pressed to control the output.  In general, lower case
       keys can be used to show other information for the active
       processes and upper case keys can be used to influence the sort
       order of the active process/thread list.

       g    Show generic output (default).

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a
            window-width of 80 positions: process-id, cpu consumption
            during the last interval in system and user mode, the
            virtual and resident memory growth of the process.

            The subsequent columns depend on the used kernel:
            When the kernel supports "storage accounting" (>= 2.6.20),
            the data transfer for read/write on disk, the status and
            exit code are shown for each process.  When the kernel does
            not support "storage accounting", the username, number of
            threads in the thread group, the status and exit code are
            shown.
            The last columns contain the state, the occupation
            percentage for the chosen resource (default: cpu) and the
            process name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information
            is added.

       m    Show memory related output.

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a
            window-width of 80 positions: process-id, minor and major
            memory faults, size of virtual shared text, total virtual
            process size, total resident process size, virtual and
            resident growth during last interval, memory occupation
            percentage and process name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information
            is added.

            For memory consumption, always all processes are shown (also
            the processes that were not active during the interval).

       d    Show disk-related output.

            When "storage accounting" is active in the kernel, the
            following fields are shown: process-id, amount of data read
            from disk, amount of data written to disk, amount of data
            that was written but has been withdrawn again (WCANCL), disk
            occupation percentage and process name.

       s    Show scheduling characteristics.

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a
            window-width of 80 positions: process-id, number of threads
            in state 'running' (R), number of threads in state
            'interruptible sleeping' (S), number of threads in state
            'uninterruptible sleeping' (D), scheduling policy (normal
            timesharing, realtime round-robin, realtime fifo), nice
            value, priority, realtime priority, current processor,
            status, exit code, state, the occupation percentage for the
            chosen resource and the process name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information
            is added.

       v    Show various process characteristics.

            Per process the following fields are shown in case of a
            window-width of 80 positions: process-id, user name and
            group, start date and time, status (e.g. exit code if the
            process has finished), state, the occupation percentage for
            the chosen resource and the process name.

            When more than 80 positions are available, other information
            is added.

       c    Show the command line of the process.

            Per process the following fields are shown: process-id, the
            occupation percentage for the chosen resource and the
            command line including arguments.

       e    Show GPU utilization.

            Per process at least the following fields are shown:
            process-id, range of GPU numbers on which the process
            currently runs, GPU busy percentage on all GPUs, memory busy
            percentage (i.e. read and write accesses on memory) on all
            GPUs, memory occupation at the moment of the sample, average
            memory occupation during the sample, and GPU percentage.

            When the pmdanvidia daemon does not run with root
            privileges, the GPU busy percentage and the memory busy
            percentage are not available on process level.  In that
            case, the GPU percentage on process level reflects the GPU
            memory occupation instead of the GPU busy percentage (which
            is preferred).

       o    Show the user-defined line of the process.

            In the configuration file the keyword ownprocline can be
            specified with the description of a user-defined output-
            line.
            Refer to the man-page of pcp-atoprc(5) for a detailed
            description.

       y    Show the individual threads within a process (toggle).

            Single-threaded processes are still shown as one line.
            For multi-threaded processes, one line represents the
            process while additional lines show the activity per
            individual thread (in a different color).  Depending on the
            option 'a' (all or active toggle), all threads are shown or
            only the threads that were active during the last interval.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       u    Show the process activity accumulated per user.

            Per user the following fields are shown: number of processes
            active or terminated during last interval (or in total if
            combined with command `a'), accumulated cpu consumption
            during last interval in system and user mode, the current
            virtual and resident memory space consumed by active
            processes (or all processes of the user if combined with
            command `a').
            When "storage accounting" is active in the kernel, the
            accumulated read and write throughput on disk is shown.
            When the pmdabcc(1) module `netproc' has been installed, the
            number of received and sent network packets are shown.
            The last columns contain the accumulated occupation
            percentage for the chosen resource (default: cpu) and the
            user name.

       p    Show the process activity accumulated per program (i.e.
            process name).

            Per program the following fields are shown: number of
            processes active or terminated during last interval (or in
            total if combined with command `a'), accumulated cpu
            consumption during last interval in system and user mode,
            the current virtual and resident memory space consumed by
            active processes (or all processes of the user if combined
            with command `a').
            When "storage accounting" is active in the kernel, the
            accumulated read and write throughput on disk is shown.
            When the pmdabcc(1) module `netproc' has been installed, the
            number of received and sent network packets are shown.
            The last columns contain the accumulated occupation
            percentage for the chosen resource (default: cpu) and the
            program name.

       j    Show the process activity accumulated per Docker container.

            Per container the following fields are shown: number of
            processes active or terminated during last interval (or in
            total if combined with command `a'), accumulated cpu
            consumption during last interval in system and user mode,
            the current virtual and resident memory space consumed by
            active processes (or all processes of the user if combined
            with command `a').
            When "storage accounting" is active in the kernel, the
            accumulated read and write throughput on disk is shown.
            When the pmdabcc(1) module `netproc' has been installed, the
            number of received and sent network packets are shown.
            The last columns contain the accumulated occupation
            percentage for the chosen resource (default: cpu) and the
            Docker container id (CID).

       C    Sort the current list in the order of cpu consumption
            (default).  The one-but-last column changes to ``CPU''.

       E    Sort the current list in the order of GPU utilization
            (preferred, but only applicable when the pmdanvidia daemon
            runs under root privileges) or the order of GPU memory
            occupation).  The one-but-last column changes to ``GPU''.

       M    Sort the current list in the order of resident memory
            consumption.  The one-but-last column changes to ``MEM''.
            In case of sorting on memory, the full process list will be
            shown (not only the active processes).

       D    Sort the current list in the order of disk accesses issued.
            The one-but-last column changes to ``DSK''.

       N    Sort the current list in the order of network bandwidth
            (received and transmitted).  The one-but-last column changes
            to ``NET''.

       A    Sort the current list automatically in the order of the most
            busy system resource during this interval.  The one-but-last
            column shows either ``ACPU'', ``AMEM'', ``ADSK'' or ``ANET''
            (the preceding 'A' indicates automatic sorting-order).  The
            most busy resource is determined by comparing the weighted
            busy-percentages of the system resources, as described
            earlier in the section COLORS.
            This option remains valid until another sorting-order is
            explicitly selected again.
            A sorting-order for disk is only possible when "storage
            accounting" is active.  A sorting-order for network is only
            possible when the pmdabcc(1) module `netproc' has been
            installed.

       Miscellaneous interactive commands:

       ?    Request for help information (also the key 'h' can be
            pressed).

       V    Request for version information (version number and date).

       R    Gather and calculate the proportional set size of processes
            (toggle).  Gathering of all values that are needed to
            calculate the PSIZE of a process is a relatively time-
            consuming task, so this key should only be active when
            analyzing the resident memory consumption of processes.

       x    Suppress colors to highlight critical resources (toggle).
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       z    The pause key can be used to freeze the current situation in
            order to investigate the output on the screen.  While pcp-
            atop is paused, the keys described above can be pressed to
            show other information about the current list of processes.
            Whenever the pause key is pressed again, pcp-atop will
            continue with the next sample.

       i    Modify the interval timer (default: 10 seconds).  If an
            interval timer of 0 is entered, the interval timer is
            switched off.  In that case a new sample can only be
            triggered manually by pressing the key 't'.

       t    Trigger a new sample manually.  This key can be pressed if
            the current sample should be finished before the timer has
            exceeded, or if no timer is set at all (interval timer
            defined as 0).  In the latter case pcp-atop can be used as a
            stopwatch to measure the load being caused by a particular
            application transaction, without knowing on beforehand how
            many seconds this transaction will last.

            When viewing the contents of an archive folio, this key can
            be used to show the next sample from the folio.

       T    When viewing the contents of an archive folio, this key can
            be used to show the previous sample from the folio.

       b    When viewing the contents of an archive folio, this key can
            be used to move to a certain timestamp within the file
            (either forward or backward).

       r    Reset all counters to zero to see the system and process
            activity since boot again.

            When viewing the contents of an archive, this key can be
            used to rewind to the beginning of the file again.

       U    Specify a search string for specific user names as a regular
            expression.  From now on, only (active) processes will be
            shown from a user which matches the regular expression.  The
            system statistics are still system wide.  If the Enter-key
            is pressed without specifying a name, (active) processes of
            all users will be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       I    Specify a list with one or more PIDs to be selected.  From
            now on, only processes will be shown with a PID which
            matches one of the given list.  The system statistics are
            still system wide.  If the Enter-key is pressed without
            specifying a PID, all (active) processes will be shown
            again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       P    Specify a search string for specific process names as a
            regular expression.  From now on, only processes will be
            shown with a name which matches the regular expression.  The
            system statistics are still system wide.  If the Enter-key
            is pressed without specifying a name, all (active) processes
            will be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       /    Specify a specific command line search string as a regular
            expression.  From now on, only processes will be shown with
            a command line which matches the regular expression.  The
            system statistics are still system wide.  If the Enter-key
            is pressed without specifying a string, all (active)
            processes will be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       J    Specify a Docker container id of 12 (hexadecimal)
            characters.  From now on, only processes will be shown that
            run in that specific Docker container (CID).  The system
            statistics are still system wide.  If the Enter-key is
            pressed without specifying a container id, all (active)
            processes will be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       S    Specify search strings for specific logical volume names,
            specific disk names and specific network interface names.
            All search strings are interpreted as a regular expressions.
            From now on, only those system resources are shown that
            match the concerning regular expression.  If the Enter-key
            is pressed without specifying a search string, all (active)
            system resources of that type will be shown again.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       a    The `all/active' key can be used to toggle between only
            showing/accumulating the processes that were active during
            the last interval (default) or showing/accumulating all
            processes.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       G    By default, pcp-atop shows/accumulates the processes that
            are alive and the processes that are exited during the last
            interval.  With this key (toggle), showing/accumulating the
            processes that are exited can be suppressed.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       f    Show a fixed (maximum) number of header lines for system
            resources (toggle).  By default only the lines are shown
            about system resources (CPUs, paging, logical volumes,
            disks, network interfaces) that really have been active
            during the last interval.  With this key you can force pcp-
            atop to show lines of inactive resources as well.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       F    Suppress sorting of system resources (toggle).  By default
            system resources (CPUs, logical volumes, disks, network
            interfaces) are sorted on utilization.
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       1    Show relevant counters as an average per second (in the
            format `..../s') instead of as a total during the interval
            (toggle).
            Whether this key is active or not can be seen in the header
            line.

       l    Limit the number of system level lines for the counters per-
            cpu, the active disks and the network interfaces.  By
            default lines are shown of all CPUs, disks and network
            interfaces which have been active during the last interval.
            Limiting these lines can be useful on systems with huge
            number CPUs, disks or interfaces in order to be able to run
            pcp-atop on a screen/window with e.g. only 24 lines.
            For all mentioned resources the maximum number of lines can
            be specified interactively. When using the flag -l the
            maximum number of per-cpu lines is set to 0, the maximum
            number of disk lines to 5 and the maximum number of
            interface lines to 3.  These values can be modified again in
            interactive mode.

       k    Send a signal to an active process (a.k.a. kill a process).

       q    Quit the program.

       PgDn Show the next page of the process/thread list.
            With the arrow-down key the list can be scrolled downwards
            with single lines.

       ^F   Show the next page of the process/thread list (forward).
            With the arrow-down key the list can be scrolled downwards
            with single lines.

       PgUp Show the previous page of the process/thread list.
            With the arrow-up key the list can be scrolled upwards with
            single lines.

       ^B   Show the previous page of the process/thread list
            (backward).
            With the arrow-up key the list can be scrolled upwards with
            single lines.

       ^L   Redraw the screen.

PCP DATA STORAGE         top

       In order to store system and process level statistics for long-
       term analysis (e.g. to check the system load and the active
       processes running yesterday between 3:00 and 4:00 PM), pcp-atop
       can store the system and process level statistics in the PCP
       archive format, as an archive folio (see mkaf(1)).
       All information about processes and threads is stored in the
       archive.
       The interval (default: 10 seconds) and number of samples
       (default: infinite) can be passed as last arguments.  Instead of
       the number of samples, the flag -S can be used to indicate that
       pcp-atop should finish anyhow before midnight.

       A PCP archive can be read and visualized again with the -r
       option.  The argument is a comma-separated list of names, each of
       which may be the base name of an archive or the name of a
       directory containing one or more archives.  If no argument is
       specified, the file $PCP_LOG_DIR/pmlogger/HOST/YYYYMMDD is opened
       for input (where YYYYMMDD are digits representing the current
       date, and HOST is the hostname of the machine being logged).  If
       a filename is specified in the format YYYYMMDD (representing any
       valid date), the file $PCP_LOG_DIR/pmlogger/HOST/YYYYMMDD is
       opened.  If a filename with the symbolic name y is specified,
       yesterday's daily logfile is opened (this can be repeated so
       'yyyy' indicates the logfile of four days ago).
       The samples from the file can be viewed interactively by using
       the key 't' to show the next sample, the key 'T' to show the
       previous sample, the key 'b' to branch to a particular time or
       the key 'r' to rewind to the begin of the file.
       When output is redirected to a file or pipe, pcp-atop prints all
       samples in plain ASCII.  The default line length is 80 characters
       in that case; with the flag -L followed by an alternate line
       length, more (or less) columns will be shown.
       With the flag -b (begin time) and/or -e (end time) followed by a
       time argument of the form HH:MM, a certain time period within the
       archive can be selected.

OUTPUT DESCRIPTION         top

       The first sample shows the system level activity since boot (the
       elapsed time in the header shows the time since boot).  Note that
       particular counters could have reached their maximum value
       (several times) and started by zero again, so do not rely on
       these figures.

       For every sample pcp-atop first shows the lines related to system
       level activity. If a particular system resource has not been used
       during the interval, the entire line related to this resource is
       suppressed.  So the number of system level lines may vary for
       each sample.
       After that a list is shown of processes which have been active
       during the last interval.  This list is by default sorted on cpu
       consumption, but this order can be changed by the keys which are
       previously described.

       If values have to be shown by pcp-atop which do not fit in the
       column width, another format is used. If e.g. a cpu-consumption
       of 233216 milliseconds should be shown in a column width of 4
       positions, it is shown as `233s' (in seconds).  For large memory
       figures, another unit is chosen if the value does not fit (Mb
       instead of Kb, Gb instead of Mb, Tb instead of Gb, ...).  For
       other values, a kind of exponent notation is used (value
       123456789 shown in a column of 5 positions gives 123e6).

OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - SYSTEM LEVEL         top

       The system level information consists of the following output
       lines:

       PRC  Process and thread level totals.
            This line contains the total cpu time consumed in system
            mode (`sys') and in user mode (`user'), the total number of
            processes present at this moment (`#proc'), the total number
            of threads present at this moment in state `running'
            (`#trun'), `sleeping interruptible' (`#tslpi') and `sleeping
            uninterruptible' (`#tslpu'), the number of zombie processes
            (`#zombie'), the number of clone system calls (`clones'),
            and the number of processes that ended during the interval
            (`#exit') when process accounting is used. Instead of
            `#exit` the last column may indicate that process accounting
            could not be activated (`no procacct`).
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.

       CPU  CPU utilization.
            At least one line is shown for the total occupation of all
            CPUs together.
            In case of a multi-processor system, an additional line is
            shown for every individual processor (with `cpu' in lower
            case), sorted on activity.  Inactive CPUs will not be shown
            by default.  The lines showing the per-cpu occupation
            contain the cpu number in the field combined with the wait
            percentage.

            Every line contains the percentage of cpu time spent in
            kernel mode by all active processes (`sys'), the percentage
            of cpu time consumed in user mode (`user') for all active
            processes (including processes running with a nice value
            larger than zero), the percentage of cpu time spent for
            interrupt handling (`irq') including softirq, the percentage
            of unused cpu time while no processes were waiting for disk
            I/O (`idle'), and the percentage of unused cpu time while at
            least one process was waiting for disk I/O (`wait').
            In case of per-cpu occupation, the cpu number and the wait
            percentage (`w') for that cpu.  The number of lines showing
            the per-cpu occupation can be limited.

            For virtual machines, the steal-percentage (`steal') shows
            the percentage of cpu time stolen by other virtual machines
            running on the same hardware.
            For physical machines hosting one or more virtual machines,
            the guest-percentage (`guest') shows the percentage of cpu
            time used by the virtual machines.  Notice that this
            percentage overlaps the user-percentage!

            When PMC performance monitoring counters are supported by
            the CPU and the kernel (and pmdaperfevent(1) runs with root
            privileges), the number of instructions per CPU cycle
            (`ipc') is shown.  The first sample always shows the value
            'initial', because the counters are just activated at the
            moment that pcp-atop is started.
            When the CPU busy percentage is high and the IPC is less
            than 1.0, it is likely that the CPU is frequently waiting
            for memory access during instruction execution (larger CPU
            caches or faster memory might be helpful to improve
            performance).  When the CPU busy percentage is high and the
            IPC is greater than 1.0, it is likely that the CPU is
            instruction-bound (more/faster cores might be helpful to
            improve performance).
            Furthermore, per CPU the effective number of cycles (`cycl')
            is shown.  This value can reach the current CPU frequency if
            such CPU is 100% busy.  When an idle CPU is halted, the
            number of effective cycles can be (considerably) lower than
            the current frequency.
            Notice that the average instructions per cycle and number of
            cycles is shown in the CPU line for all CPUs.
            See also:
            http://www.brendangregg.com/blog/2017-05-09/cpu-utilization-is-wrong.html 

            In case of frequency scaling, all previously mentioned CPU
            percentages are relative to the used scaling of the CPU
            during the interval.  If a CPU has been active for e.g. 50%
            in user mode during the interval while the frequency scaling
            of that CPU was 40%, only 20% of the full capacity of the
            CPU has been used in user mode.

            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.

       CPL  CPU load information.
            This line contains the load average figures reflecting the
            number of threads that are available to run on a CPU (i.e.
            part of the runqueue) or that are waiting for disk I/O.
            These figures are averaged over 1 (`avg1'), 5 (`avg5') and
            15 (`avg15') minutes.
            Furthermore the number of context switches (`csw'), the
            number of serviced interrupts (`intr') and the number of
            available CPUs are shown.

            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.

       GPU  GPU utilization (Nvidia).
            Read the section GPU STATISTICS GATHERING in this document
            to find the details about the activation of the pmdanvidia
            daemon.

            In the first column of every line, the bus-id (last nine
            characters) and the GPU number are shown.  The subsequent
            columns show the percentage of time that one or more kernels
            were executing on the GPU (`gpubusy'), the percentage of
            time that global (device) memory was being read or written
            (`membusy'), the occupation percentage of memory (`memocc'),
            the total memory (`total'), the memory being in use at the
            moment of the sample (`used'), the average memory being in
            use during the sample time (`usavg'), the number of
            processes being active on the GPU at the moment of the
            sample (`#proc'), and the type of GPU.

            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.
            The number of lines showing the GPUs can be limited.

       MEM  Memory occupation.
            This line contains the total amount of physical memory
            (`tot'), the amount of memory which is currently free
            (`free'), the amount of memory in use as page cache
            including the total resident shared memory (`cache'), the
            amount of memory within the page cache that has to be
            flushed to disk (`dirty'), the amount of memory used for
            filesystem meta data (`buff'), the amount of memory being
            used for kernel mallocs (`slab'), the amount of slab memory
            that is reclaimable (`slrec'), the resident size of shared
            memory including tmpfs (`shmem`), the resident size of
            shared memory (`shrss`) the amount of shared memory that is
            currently swapped (`shswp`), the amount of memory that is
            currently claimed by vmware's balloon driver (`vmbal`), the
            amount of memory that is claimed for huge pages (`hptot`),
            and the amount of huge page memory that is really in use
            (`hpuse`).

            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.

       SWP  Swap occupation and overcommit info.
            This line contains the total amount of swap space on disk
            (`tot') and the amount of free swap space (`free').
            Furthermore the committed virtual memory space (`vmcom') and
            the maximum limit of the committed space (`vmlim', which is
            by default swap size plus 50% of memory size) is shown.  The
            committed space is the reserved virtual space for all
            allocations of private memory space for processes.  The
            kernel only verifies whether the committed space exceeds the
            limit if strict overcommit handling is configured
            (vm.overcommit_memory is 2).

       PAG  Paging frequency.
            This line contains the number of scanned pages (`scan') due
            to the fact that free memory drops below a particular
            threshold and the number times that the kernel tries to
            reclaim pages due to an urgent need (`stall').
            Also the number of memory pages the system read from swap
            space (`swin') and the number of memory pages the system
            wrote to swap space (`swout') are shown.

       PSI  Pressure Stall Information.
            This line contains three percentages per category: average
            pressure percentage over the last 10, 60 and 300 seconds
            (separated by slashes).
            The categories are: CPU for 'some' (`cs'), memory for 'some'
            (`ms'), memory for 'full' (`mf'), I/O for 'some' (`is'), and
            I/O for 'full' (`if').

       LVM/MDD/DSK
            Logical volume/multiple device/disk utilization.
            Per active unit one line is produced, sorted on unit
            activity.  Such line shows the name (e.g. VolGroup00-lvtmp
            for a logical volume or sda for a hard disk), the busy
            percentage i.e. the portion of time that the unit was busy
            handling requests (`busy'), the number of read requests
            issued (`read'), the number of write requests issued
            (`write'), the number of KiBytes per read (`KiB/r'), the
            number of KiBytes per write (`KiB/w'), the number of MiBytes
            per second throughput for reads (`MBr/s'), the number of
            MiBytes per second throughput for writes (`MBw/s'), the
            average queue depth (`avq') and the average number of
            milliseconds needed by a request (`avio') for seek, latency
            and data transfer.
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.

            The number of lines showing the units can be limited per
            class (LVM, MDD or DSK) with the 'l' key or statically (see
            separate man-page of pcp-atoprc(5)).  By specifying the
            value 0 for a particular class, no lines will be shown any
            more for that class.

       NFM  Network Filesystem (NFS) mount at the client side.
            For each NFS-mounted filesystem, a line is shown that
            contains the mounted server directory, the name of the
            server (`srv'), the total number of bytes physically read
            from the server (`read') and the total number of bytes
            physically written to the server (`write').  Data transfer
            is subdivided in the number of bytes read via normal read()
            system calls (`nread'), the number of bytes written via
            normal read() system calls (`nwrit'), the number of bytes
            read via direct I/O (`dread'), the number of bytes written
            via direct I/O (`dwrit'), the number of bytes read via
            memory mapped I/O pages (`mread'), and the number of bytes
            written via memory mapped I/O pages (`mwrit').

       NFC  Network Filesystem (NFS) client side counters.
            This line contains the number of RPC calls issues by local
            processes (`rpc'), the number of read RPC calls (`read`) and
            write RPC calls (`rpwrite') issued to the NFS server, the
            number of RPC calls being retransmitted (`retxmit') and the
            number of authorization refreshes (`autref').

       NFS  Network Filesystem (NFS) server side counters.
            This line contains the number of RPC calls received from NFS
            clients (`rpc'), the number of read RPC calls received
            (`cread`), the number of write RPC calls received (`cwrit'),
            the number of Megabytes/second returned to read requests by
            clients (`MBcr/s`), the number of Megabytes/second passed in
            write requests by clients (`MBcw/s`), the number of network
            requests handled via TCP (`nettcp'), the number of network
            requests handled via UDP (`netudp'), the number of reply
            cache hits (`rchits'), the number of reply cache misses
            (`rcmiss') and the number of uncached requests (`rcnoca').
            Furthermore some error counters indicating the number of
            requests with a bad format (`badfmt') or a bad authorization
            (`badaut'), and a counter indicating the number of bad
            clients (`badcln').

       NET  Network utilization (TCP/IP).
            One line is shown for activity of the transport layer (TCP
            and UDP), one line for the IP layer and one line per active
            interface.
            For the transport layer, counters are shown concerning the
            number of received TCP segments including those received in
            error (`tcpi'), the number of transmitted TCP segments
            excluding those containing only retransmitted octets
            (`tcpo'), the number of UDP datagrams received (`udpi'), the
            number of UDP datagrams transmitted (`udpo'), the number of
            active TCP opens (`tcpao'), the number of passive TCP opens
            (`tcppo'), the number of TCP output retransmissions
            (`tcprs'), the number of TCP input errors (`tcpie'), the
            number of TCP output resets (`tcpor'), the number of UDP no
            ports (`udpnp'), and the number of UDP input errors
            (`udpie').
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.
            These counters are related to IPv4 and IPv6 combined.

            For the IP layer, counters are shown concerning the number
            of IP datagrams received from interfaces, including those
            received in error (`ipi'), the number of IP datagrams that
            local higher-layer protocols offered for transmission
            (`ipo'), the number of received IP datagrams which were
            forwarded to other interfaces (`ipfrw'), the number of IP
            datagrams which were delivered to local higher-layer
            protocols (`deliv'), the number of received ICMP datagrams
            (`icmpi'), and the number of transmitted ICMP datagrams
            (`icmpo').
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.
            These counters are related to IPv4 and IPv6 combined.

            For every active network interface one line is shown, sorted
            on the interface activity.  Such line shows the name of the
            interface and its busy percentage in the first column.  The
            busy percentage for half duplex is determined by comparing
            the interface speed with the number of bits transmitted and
            received per second; for full duplex the interface speed is
            compared with the highest of either the transmitted or the
            received bits.  When the interface speed can not be
            determined (e.g. for the loopback interface), `---' is shown
            instead of the percentage.
            Furthermore the number of received packets (`pcki'), the
            number of transmitted packets (`pcko'), the line speed of
            the interface (`sp'), the effective amount of bits received
            per second (`si'), the effective amount of bits transmitted
            per second (`so'), the number of collisions (`coll'), the
            number of received multicast packets (`mlti'), the number of
            errors while receiving a packet (`erri'), the number of
            errors while transmitting a packet (`erro'), the number of
            received packets dropped (`drpi'), and the number of
            transmitted packets dropped (`drpo').
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.
            The number of lines showing the network interfaces can be
            limited.

       IFB  Infiniband utilization.
            For every active Infiniband port one line is shown, sorted
            on activity.  Such line shows the name of the port and its
            busy percentage in the first column.  The busy percentage is
            determined by taking the highest of either the transmitted
            or the received bits during the interval, multiplying that
            value by the number of lanes and comparing it against the
            maximum port speed.
            Furthermore the number of received packets divided by the
            number of lanes (`pcki'), the number of transmitted packets
            divided by the number of lanes (`pcko'), the maximum line
            speed (`sp'), the effective amount of bits received per
            second (`si'), the effective amount of bits transmitted per
            second (`so'), and the number of lanes (`lanes').
            If the screen-width does not allow all of these counters,
            only a relevant subset is shown.
            The number of lines showing the Infiniband ports can be
            limited.

OUTPUT DESCRIPTION - PROCESS LEVEL         top

       Following the system level information, the processes are shown
       from which the resource utilization has changed during the last
       interval.  These processes might have used cpu time or issued
       disk or network requests.  However a process is also shown if
       part of it has been paged out due to lack of memory (while the
       process itself was in sleep state).

       Per process the following fields may be shown (in alphabetical
       order), depending on the current output mode as described in the
       section INTERACTIVE COMMANDS and depending on the current width
       of your window:

       AVGRSZ   The average size of one read-action on disk.

       AVGWSZ   The average size of one write-action on disk.

       CID      Container ID (Docker) of 12 hexadecimal digits,
                referring to the container in which the process/thread
                is running.  If a process has been started and finished
                during the last interval, a `?' is shown because the
                container ID is not part of the standard process
                accounting record.

       CMD      The name of the process.  This name can be surrounded by
                "less/greater than" signs (`<name>') which means that
                the process has finished during the last interval.
                Behind the abbreviation `CMD' in the header line, the
                current page number and the total number of pages of the
                process/thread list are shown.

       COMMAND-LINE
                The full command line of the process (including
                arguments). If the length of the command line exceeds
                the length of the screen line, the arrow keys -> and <-
                can be used for horizontal scroll.
                Behind the verb `COMMAND-LINE' in the header line, the
                current page number and the total number of pages of the
                process/thread list are shown.

       CPU      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                available capacity for this resource on system level.

       CPUNR    The identification of the CPU the (main) thread is
                running on or has recently been running on.

       CTID     Container ID (OpenVZ).  If a process has been started
                and finished during the last interval, a `?' is shown
                because the container ID is not part of the standard
                process accounting record.

       DSK      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                total load that is produced by all processes (i.e. total
                disk accesses by all processes during the last
                interval).
                This information is shown when per process "storage
                accounting" is active in the kernel.

       EGID     Effective group-id under which this process executes.

       ENDATE   Date that the process has been finished.  If the process
                is still running, this field shows `active'.

       ENTIME   Time that the process has been finished.  If the process
                is still running, this field shows `active'.

       ENVID    Virtual environment identified (OpenVZ only).

       EUID     Effective user-id under which this process executes.

       EXC      The exit code of a terminated process (second position
                of column `ST' is E) or the fatal signal number (second
                position of column `ST' is S or C).

       FSGID    Filesystem group-id under which this process executes.

       FSUID    Filesystem user-id under which this process executes.

       GPU      When the pmdanvidia daemon does not run with root
                privileges, the GPU percentage reflects the GPU memory
                occupation percentage (memory of all GPUs is 100%).
                When the pmdanvidia daemon runs with root privileges,
                the GPU percentage reflects the GPU busy percentage.

       GPUBUSY  Busy percentage on all GPUs (one GPU is 100%).
                When the pmdanvidia daemon does not run with root
                privileges, this value is not available.

       GPUNUMS  Comma-separated list of GPUs used by the process during
                the interval.  When the comma-separated list exceeds the
                width of the column, a hexadecimal value is shown.

       MAJFLT   The number of page faults issued by this process that
                have been solved by creating/loading the requested
                memory page.

       MEM      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                available capacity for this resource on system level.

       MEMAVG   Average memory occupation during the interval on all
                used GPUs.

       MEMBUSY  Busy percentage of memory on all GPUs (one GPU is 100%),
                i.e.  the time needed for read and write accesses on
                memory.
                When the pmdanvidia daemon does not run with root
                privileges, this value is not available.

       MEMNOW   Memory occupation at the moment of the sample on all
                used GPUs.

       MINFLT   The number of page faults issued by this process that
                have been solved by reclaiming the requested memory page
                from the free list of pages.

       NET      The occupation percentage of this process related to the
                total load that is produced by all processes (i.e.
                consumed network bandwidth of all processes during the
                last interval).
                This information will only be shown when the pmdabcc(1)
                module `netproc' has been installed.

       NICE     The more or less static priority that can be given to a
                process on a scale from -20 (high priority) to +19 (low
                priority).

       NPROCS   The number of active and terminated processes
                accumulated for this user or program.

       PID      Process-id.

       POLI     The policies 'norm' (normal, which is SCHED_OTHER),
                'btch' (batch) and 'idle' refer to timesharing
                processes.  The policies 'fifo' (SCHED_FIFO) and 'rr'
                (round robin, which is SCHED_RR) refer to realtime
                processes.

       PPID     Parent process-id.

       PRI      The process' priority ranges from 0 (highest priority)
                to 139 (lowest priority).  Priority 0 to 99 are used for
                realtime processes (fixed priority independent of their
                behavior) and priority 100 to 139 for timesharing
                processes (variable priority depending on their recent
                CPU consumption and the nice value).

       PSIZE    The proportional memory size of this process (or user).
                Every process shares resident memory with other
                processes.  E.g. when a particular program is started
                several times, the code pages (text) are only loaded
                once in memory and shared by all incarnations.  Also the
                code of shared libraries is shared by all processes
                using that shared library, as well as shared memory and
                memory-mapped files.  For the PSIZE calculation of a
                process, the resident memory of a process that is shared
                with other processes is divided by the number of
                sharers.  This means, that every process is accounted
                for a proportional part of that memory.  Accumulating
                the PSIZE values of all processes in the system gives a
                reliable impression of the total resident memory
                consumed by all processes.
                Since gathering of all values that are needed to
                calculate the PSIZE is a relatively time-consuming task,
                the 'R' key (or '-R' flag) should be active.  Gathering
                these values also requires superuser privileges
                (otherwise '?K' is shown in the output).

       RDDSK    When the kernel maintains standard io statistics (>=
                2.6.20):
                The read data transfer issued physically on disk (so
                reading from the disk cache is not accounted for).
                Unfortunately, the kernel aggregates the data tranfer of
                a process to the data transfer of its parent process
                when terminating, so you might see transfers for
                (parent) processes like cron, bash or init, that are not
                really issued by them.

       RGID     The real group-id under which the process executes.

       RGROW    The amount of resident memory that the process has grown
                during the last interval.  A resident growth can be
                caused by touching memory pages which were not
                physically created/loaded before (load-on-demand).  Note
                that a resident growth can also be negative e.g. when
                part of the process is paged out due to lack of memory
                or when the process frees dynamically allocated memory.
                For a process which started during the last interval,
                the resident growth reflects the total resident size of
                the process at that moment.

       RSIZE    The total resident memory usage consumed by this process
                (or user).  Notice that the RSIZE of a process includes
                all resident memory used by that process, even if
                certain memory parts are shared with other processes
                (see also the explanation of PSIZE).

       RTPR     Realtime priority according the POSIX standard.  Value
                can be 0 for a timesharing process (policy 'norm',
                'btch' or 'idle') or ranges from 1 (lowest) till 99
                (highest) for a realtime process (policy 'rr' or
                'fifo').

       RUID     The real user-id under which the process executes.

       S        The current state of the (main) thread: `R' for running
                (currently processing or in the runqueue), `S' for
                sleeping interruptible (wait for an event to occur), `D'
                for sleeping non-interruptible, `Z' for zombie (waiting
                to be synchronized with its parent process), `T' for
                stopped (suspended or traced), `W' for swapping, and `E'
                (exit) for processes which have finished during the last
                interval.

       SGID     The saved group-id of the process.

       ST       The status of a process.
                The first position indicates if the process has been
                started during the last interval (the value N means 'new
                process').

                The second position indicates if the process has been
                finished during the last interval.
                The value E means 'exit' on the process' own initiative;
                the exit code is displayed in the column `EXC'.
                The value S means that the process has been terminated
                unvoluntarily by a signal; the signal number is
                displayed in the in the column `EXC'.
                The value C means that the process has been terminated
                unvoluntarily by a signal, producing a core dump in its
                current directory; the signal number is displayed in the
                column `EXC'.

       STDATE   The start date of the process.

       STTIME   The start time of the process.

       SUID     The saved user-id of the process.

       SWAPSZ   The swap space consumed by this process (or user).

       SYSCPU   CPU time consumption of this process in system mode
                (kernel mode), usually due to system call handling.

       THR      Total number of threads within this process.  All
                related threads are contained in a thread group,
                represented by pcp-atop as one line or as a separate
                line when the 'y' key (or -y flag) is active.

       TID      Thread-id.  All threads within a process run with the
                same PID but with a different TID.  This value is shown
                for individual threads in multi-threaded processes (when
                using the key 'y').

       TRUN     Number of threads within this process that are in the
                state 'running' (R).

       TSLPI    Number of threads within this process that are in the
                state 'interruptible sleeping' (S).

       TSLPU    Number of threads within this process that are in the
                state 'uninterruptible sleeping' (D).

       USRCPU   CPU time consumption of this process in user mode, due
                to processing the own program text.

       VDATA    The virtual memory size of the private data used by this
                process (including heap and shared library data).

       VGROW    The amount of virtual memory that the process has grown
                during the last interval.  A virtual growth can be
                caused by e.g. issueing a malloc() or attaching a shared
                memory segment.  Note that a virtual growth can also be
                negative by e.g. issueing a free() or detaching a shared
                memory segment.  For a process which started during the
                last interval, the virtual growth reflects the total
                virtual size of the process at that moment.

       VPID     Virtual process-id (within an OpenVZ container).  If a
                process has been started and finished during the last
                interval, a `?' is shown because the virtual process-id
                is not part of the standard process accounting record.

       VSIZE    The total virtual memory usage consumed by this process
                (or user).

       VSLIBS   The virtual memory size of the (shared) text of all
                shared libraries used by this process.

       VSTACK   The virtual memory size of the (private) stack used by
                this process

       VSTEXT   The virtual memory size of the (shared) text of the
                executable program.

       WRDSK    When the kernel maintains standard io statistics (>=
                2.6.20):
                The write data transfer issued physically on disk (so
                writing to the disk cache is not accounted for).  This
                counter is maintained for the application process that
                writes its data to the cache (assuming that this data is
                physically transferred to disk later on).  Notice that
                disk I/O needed for swapping is not taken into account.
                Unfortunately, the kernel aggregates the data tranfer of
                a process to the data transfer of its parent process
                when terminating, so you might see transfers for
                (parent) processes like cron, bash or init, that are not
                really issued by them.

       WCANCL   When the kernel maintains standard io statistics (>=
                2.6.20):
                The write data transfer previously accounted for this
                process or another process that has been cancelled.
                Suppose that a process writes new data to a file and
                that data is removed again before the cache buffers have
                been flushed to disk.  Then the original process shows
                the written data as WRDSK, while the process that
                removes/truncates the file shows the unflushed removed
                data as WCANCL.

PARSEABLE OUTPUT         top

       With the flag -P followed by a list of one or more labels (comma-
       separated), parseable output is produced for each sample.  The
       labels that can be specified for system-level statistics
       correspond to the labels (first verb of each line) that can be
       found in the interactive output: "CPU", "cpu", "CPL", "GPU",
       "MEM", "SWP", "PAG", "PSI", "LVM", "MDD", "DSK", "NFM", "NFC",
       "NFS", "NET" and "IFB".
       For process-level statistics special labels are introduced: "PRG"
       (general), "PRC" (cpu), "PRE" (GPU), "PRM" (memory), "PRD" (disk,
       only if "storage accounting" is active).
       With the label "ALL", all system and process level statistics are
       shown.

       For every interval all requested lines are shown whereafter pcp-
       atop shows a line just containing the label "SEP" as a separator
       before the lines for the next sample are generated.
       When a sample contains the values since boot, pcp-atop shows a
       line just containing the label "RESET" before the lines for this
       sample are generated.

       The first part of each output-line consists of the following six
       fields: label (the name of the label), host (the name of this
       machine), epoch (the time of this interval as number of seconds
       since 1-1-1970), date (date of this interval in format
       YYYY/MM/DD), time (time of this interval in format HH:MM:SS), and
       interval (number of seconds elapsed for this interval).

       The subsequent fields of each output-line depend on the label:

       CPU      Subsequent fields: total number of clock-ticks per
                second for this machine, number of processors,
                consumption for all CPUs in system mode (clock-ticks),
                consumption for all CPUs in user mode (clock-ticks),
                consumption for all CPUs in user mode for niced
                processes (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in
                idle mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in
                wait mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in irq
                mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in softirq
                mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in steal
                mode (clock-ticks), consumption for all CPUs in guest
                mode (clock-ticks) overlapping user mode, frequency of
                all CPUs and frequency percentage of all CPUs.

       cpu      Subsequent fields: total number of clock-ticks per
                second for this machine, processor-number, consumption
                for this CPU in system mode (clock-ticks), consumption
                for this CPU in user mode (clock-ticks), consumption for
                this CPU in user mode for niced processes (clock-ticks),
                consumption for this CPU in idle mode (clock-ticks),
                consumption for this CPU in wait mode (clock-ticks),
                consumption for this CPU in irq mode (clock-ticks),
                consumption for this CPU in softirq mode (clock-ticks),
                consumption for this CPU in steal mode (clock-ticks),
                consumption for this CPU in guest mode (clock-ticks)
                overlapping user mode, frequency of all CPUs, frequency
                percentage of all CPUs, instructions executed by all
                CPUs and cycles for all CPUs.

       CPL      Subsequent fields: number of processors, load average
                for last minute, load average for last five minutes,
                load average for last fifteen minutes, number of
                context-switches, and number of device interrupts.

       GPU      Subsequent fields: GPU number, bus-id string, type of
                GPU string, GPU busy percentage during last second (-1
                if not available), memory busy percentage during last
                second (-1 if not available), total memory size (KiB),
                used memory (KiB) at this moment, number of samples
                taken during interval, cumulative GPU busy percentage
                during the interval (to be divided by the number of
                samples for the average busy percentage, -1 if not
                available), cumulative memory busy percentage during the
                interval (to be divided by the number of samples for the
                average busy percentage, -1 if not available), and
                cumulative memory occupation during the interval (to be
                divided by the number of samples for the average
                occupation).

       MEM      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in
                bytes), size of physical memory (pages), size of free
                memory (pages), size of page cache (pages), size of
                buffer cache (pages), size of slab (pages), dirty pages
                in cache (pages), reclaimable part of slab (pages),
                total size of vmware's balloon pages (pages), total size
                of shared memory (pages), size of resident shared memory
                (pages), size of swapped shared memory (pages), huge
                page size (in bytes), total size of huge pages (huge
                pages), and size of free huge pages (huge pages).

       SWP      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in
                bytes), size of swap (pages), size of free swap (pages),
                0 (future use), size of committed space (pages), and
                limit for committed space (pages).

       PAG      Subsequent fields: page size for this machine (in
                bytes), number of page scans, number of allocstalls, 0
                (future use), number of swapins, and number of swapouts.

       PSI      Subsequent fields: PSI statistics present on this system
                (n or y), CPU some avg10, CPU some avg60, CPU some
                avg300, CPU some accumulated microseconds during
                interval, memory some avg10, memory some avg60, memory
                some avg300, memory some accumulated microseconds during
                interval, memory full avg10, memory full avg60, memory
                full avg300, memory full accumulated microseconds during
                interval, I/O some avg10, I/O some avg60, I/O some
                avg300, I/O some accumulated microseconds during
                interval, I/O full avg10, I/O full avg60, I/O full
                avg300, and I/O full accumulated microseconds during
                interval.

       LVM/MDD/DSK
                For every logical volume/multiple device/hard disk one
                line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: name, number of milliseconds spent
                for I/O, number of reads issued, number of sectors
                transferred for reads, number of writes issued, and
                number of sectors transferred for write.

       NFM      Subsequent fields: mounted NFS filesystem, total number
                of bytes read, total number of bytes written, number of
                bytes read by normal system calls, number of bytes
                written by normal system calls, number of bytes read by
                direct I/O, number of bytes written by direct I/O,
                number of pages read by memory-mapped I/O, and number of
                pages written by memory-mapped I/O.

       NFC      Subsequent fields: number of transmitted RPCs, number of
                transmitted read RPCs, number of transmitted write RPCs,
                number of RPC retransmissions, and number of
                authorization refreshes.

       NFS      Subsequent fields: number of handled RPCs, number of
                received read RPCs, number of received write RPCs,
                number of bytes read by clients, number of bytes written
                by clients, number of RPCs with bad format, number of
                RPCs with bad authorization, number of RPCs from bad
                client, total number of handled network requests, number
                of handled network requests via TCP, number of handled
                network requests via UDP, number of handled TCP
                connections, number of hits on reply cache, number of
                misses on reply cache, and number of uncached requests.

       NET      First one line is produced for the upper layers of the
                TCP/IP stack.
                Subsequent fields: the verb "upper", number of packets
                received by TCP, number of packets transmitted by TCP,
                number of packets received by UDP, number of packets
                transmitted by UDP, number of packets received by IP,
                number of packets transmitted by IP, number of packets
                delivered to higher layers by IP, and number of packets
                forwarded by IP.

                Next one line is shown for every interface.
                Subsequent fields: name of the interface, number of
                packets received by the interface, number of bytes
                received by the interface, number of packets transmitted
                by the interface, number of bytes transmitted by the
                interface, interface speed, and duplex mode (0=half,
                1=full).

       IFB      Subsequent fields: name of the InfiniBand interface,
                port number, number of lanes, maximum rate (Mbps),
                number of bytes received, number of bytes transmitted,
                number of packets received, and number of packets
                transmitted.

       PRG      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID (unique ID of task), name
                (between brackets), state, real uid, real gid, TGID
                (group number of related tasks/threads), total number of
                threads, exit code (in case of fatal signal: signal
                number + 256), start time (epoch), full command line
                (between brackets), PPID, number of threads in state
                'running' (R), number of threads in state 'interruptible
                sleeping' (S), number of threads in state
                'uninterruptible sleeping' (D), effective uid, effective
                gid, saved uid, saved gid, filesystem uid, filesystem
                gid, elapsed time (hertz), is_process (y/n), OpenVZ
                virtual pid (VPID), OpenVZ container id (CTID) and
                Docker container id (CID).

       PRC      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,
                total number of clock-ticks per second for this machine,
                CPU-consumption in user mode (clockticks), CPU-
                consumption in system mode (clockticks), nice value,
                priority, realtime priority, scheduling policy, current
                CPU, sleep average, TGID (group number of related
                tasks/threads) and is_process (y/n).

       PRE      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), process
                state, GPU state (A for active, E for exited, N for no
                GPU user), number of GPUs used by this process, bitlist
                reflecting used GPUs, GPU busy percentage during
                interval, memory busy percentage during interval, memory
                occupation (KiB) at this moment cumulative memory
                occupation (KiB) during interval, and number of samples
                taken during interval.

       PRM      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,
                page size for this machine (in bytes), virtual memory
                size (Kbytes), resident memory size (Kbytes), shared
                text memory size (Kbytes), virtual memory growth
                (Kbytes), resident memory growth (Kbytes), number of
                minor page faults, number of major page faults, virtual
                library exec size (Kbytes), virtual data size (Kbytes),
                virtual stack size (Kbytes), swap space used (Kbytes),
                TGID (group number of related tasks/threads), is_process
                (y/n) and proportional set size (Kbytes) if in 'R'
                option is specified.

       PRD      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,
                obsoleted kernel patch installed ('n'), standard io
                statistics used ('y' or 'n'), number of reads on disk,
                cumulative number of sectors read, number of writes on
                disk, cumulative number of sectors written, cancelled
                number of written sectors, TGID (group number of related
                tasks/threads) and is_process (y/n).
                If the standard I/O statistics (>= 2.6.20) are not used,
                the disk I/O counters per process are not relevant.  The
                counters 'number of reads on disk' and 'number of writes
                on disk' are obsoleted anyhow.

       PRN      For every process one line is shown.
                Subsequent fields: PID, name (between brackets), state,
                pmdabcc(1) module `netproc' loaded ('y' or 'n'), number
                of TCP-packets transmitted, cumulative size of TCP-
                packets transmitted, number of TCP-packets received,
                cumulative size of TCP-packets received, number of UDP-
                packets transmitted, cumulative size of UDP-packets
                transmitted, number of UDP-packets received, cumulative
                size of UDP-packets transmitted, number of raw packets
                transmitted (obsolete, always 0), number of raw packets
                received (obsolete, always 0), TGID (group number of
                related tasks/threads) and is_process (y/n).

SIGNALS         top

       By sending the SIGUSR1 signal to pcp-atop a new sample will be
       forced, even if the current timer interval has not exceeded yet.
       The behavior is similar to pressing the `t` key in an interactive
       session.

       By sending the SIGUSR2 signal to pcp-atop a final sample will be
       forced after which pcp-atop will terminate.

EXAMPLES         top

       To monitor the current system load interactively with an interval
       of 5 seconds:

         pcp atop 5

       To monitor the system load and write it to a file (in plain
       ASCII) with an interval of one minute during half an hour with
       active processes sorted on memory consumption:

         pcp atop -M 60 30 > /log/pcp-atop.mem

       Store information about the system and process activity in a PCP
       archive folio with an interval of ten minutes during an hour:

         pcp atop -w /tmp/pcp-atop 600 6

       View the contents of this file interactively:

         pcp atop -r /tmp/pcp-atop

       View the processor and disk utilization of this file in parseable
       format:

         pcp atop -PCPU,DSK -r /tmp/pcp-atop.folio

       View the contents of today's standard logfile interactively:

         pcp atop -r

       View the contents of the standard logfile of the day before
       yesterday interactively:

         pcp atop -r yy

       View the contents of the standard logfile of 2014, June 7 from
       02:00 PM onwards interactively:

         pcp atop -r 20140607 -b 14:00

NOTES         top

       pcp-atop is based on the source code of the atop(1) command from
       https://atoptool.nl , maintained by Gerlof Langeveld
       (gerlof.langeveld@atoptool.nl), and aims to be command line and
       output compatible with it as much as possible.  Some features of
       that atop command are not available in pcp-atop.

       Some features of pcp-atop (such as reporting on the Apache HTTP
       daemon, Infiniband, NFS client mounts, hardware event counts and
       GPU statistics) are only activated if the corresonding PCP
       metrics are available.  Refer to the documentation for
       pmdaapache(1), pmdainfiniband(1), pmdanfsclient(1), pmdanvidia(1)
       and pmdaperfevent(1) for further details on activating these
       metrics.

FILES         top

       /etc/atoprc
            Configuration file containing system-wide default values.
            See related man-page.

       ~/.atoprc
            Configuration file containing personal default values.  See
            related man-page.

PCP ENVIRONMENT         top

       Environment variables with the prefix PCP_ are used to
       parameterize the file and directory names used by PCP.  On each
       installation, the file /etc/pcp.conf contains the local values
       for these variables.  The $PCP_CONF variable may be used to
       specify an alternative configuration file, as described in
       pcp.conf(5).

       For environment variables affecting PCP tools, see
       pmGetOptions(3).

SEE ALSO         top

       PCPIntro(1), pcp(1), pcp-atopsar(1), pmdaapache(1), pmdabcc(1),
       pmdainfiniband(1), pmdanfsclient(1), pmdanvidia(1), pmdaproc(1),
       mkaf(1), pmlogger(1), pmlogger_daily(1) and pcp-atoprc(5).

COLOPHON         top

       This page is part of the PCP (Performance Co-Pilot) project.
       Information about the project can be found at 
       ⟨http://www.pcp.io/⟩.  If you have a bug report for this manual
       page, send it to pcp@groups.io.  This page was obtained from the
       project's upstream Git repository
       ⟨https://github.com/performancecopilot/pcp.git⟩ on 2020-12-18.
       (At that time, the date of the most recent commit that was found
       in the repository was 2020-12-18.)  If you discover any rendering
       problems in this HTML version of the page, or you believe there
       is a better or more up-to-date source for the page, or you have
       corrections or improvements to the information in this COLOPHON
       (which is not part of the original manual page), send a mail to
       man-pages@man7.org

Performance Co-Pilot               PCP                       PCP-ATOP(1)

Pages that refer to this page: pcp-atopsar(1)pmafm(1)pmrep(1)pcp-atoprc(5)