svsem/svsem_good_init.c

This is svsem/svsem_good_init.c (Listing 47-6, page 977), an example from the book, The Linux Programming Interface.

The source code file is copyright 2022, Michael Kerrisk, and is licensed under the GNU General Public License, version 3.

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/* svsem_good_init.c

   Show how to initialize System V semaphores in a manner that avoids
   race conditions. (Compare with svsem_bad_init.c.)
*/
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/sem.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include "semun.h"                      /* Definition of semun union */
#include "tlpi_hdr.h"
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int semid, key, perms;
    struct sembuf sops[2];

    if (argc != 2 || strcmp(argv[1], "--help") == 0)
        usageErr("%s sem-op\n", argv[0]);

    key = 12345;
    perms = S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR;

    semid = semget(key, 1, IPC_CREAT | IPC_EXCL | perms);

    if (semid != -1) {                  /* Successfully created the semaphore */
        union semun arg;
        struct sembuf sop;

        sleep(5);
        printf("%ld: created semaphore\n", (long) getpid());

        arg.val = 0;                    /* So initialize it to 0 */
        if (semctl(semid, 0, SETVAL, arg) == -1)
            errExit("semctl 1");
        printf("%ld: initialized semaphore\n", (long) getpid());

        /* Perform a "no-op" semaphore operation - changes sem_otime
           so other processes can see we've initialized the set. */

        sop.sem_num = 0;                /* Operate on semaphore 0 */
        sop.sem_op = 0;                 /* Wait for value to equal 0 */
        sop.sem_flg = 0;
        if (semop(semid, &sop, 1) == -1)
            errExit("semop");
        printf("%ld: completed dummy semop()\n", (long) getpid());

    } else {                            /* We didn't create the semaphore set */

        if (errno != EEXIST) {          /* Unexpected error from semget() */
            errExit("semget 1");

        } else {                        /* Someone else already created it */
            const int MAX_TRIES = 10;
            int j;
            union semun arg;
            struct semid_ds ds;

            semid = semget(key, 1, perms);      /* So just get ID */
            if (semid == -1)
                errExit("semget 2");

            printf("%ld: got semaphore key\n", (long) getpid());
            /* Wait until another process has called semop() */

            arg.buf = &ds;
            for (j = 0; j < MAX_TRIES; j++) {
                printf("Try %d\n", j);
                if (semctl(semid, 0, IPC_STAT, arg) == -1)
                    errExit("semctl 2");

                if (ds.sem_otime != 0)          /* Semop() performed? */
                    break;                      /* Yes, quit loop */
                sleep(1);                       /* If not, wait and retry */
            }

            if (ds.sem_otime == 0)              /* Loop ran to completion! */
                fatal("Existing semaphore not initialized");
        }
    }

    /* Now perform some operation on the semaphore */

    sops[0].sem_num = 0;                        /* Operate on semaphore 0... */
    sops[0].sem_op = getInt(argv[1], 0, "sem-op");
    sops[0].sem_flg = 0;
    if (semop(semid, sops, 1) == -1)
        errExit("semop");

    exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

 

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